Bio 304 Quiz 3

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almost always 4 or 5-merous
stamen # equal or less than corolla lobes
petals sympetalous
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Terms in this set (140)
FOUR LOBED OVARY four nutlets per flowerLamiaceae FruitsLamiaceae-many aromatic oils, flavorings and spices (lavender, mint, basil, oregano, rosemary, thyme) -many ornamentals (catnip, coleus, salvia)Lamiaceae Economic ImportanceEricaceaethe heath/blueberry familyshrubs (some herbs and trees) alternate, often evergreen leavesEricaceae Vegetative Traits-flowers perfect/synoecious plants -5 fused sepals and petals (often in bell or urn shape) -stamen 10 (or 5)Ericaceae Flowers5 united carpels fruit a berry (capsule)Ericaceae FruitsEricaceae-several important foods: blueberries, cranberries -some ornamentals: azaleas, rhododendrons -wintergreen oilEricaceae Economic ImportanceApiaceaethe carrot family-herbs -leaves alternate or basal; leaves often large and compound -sheathing petioles (KEY TRAIT) -Stem often hollow (KEY TRAIT) -internal oil tubules causing strongly scented tissuesApiaceae Vegetative Traits-synoecious -small individual flowers in a compound umbel -5 sepals (often very reduced), 5 petals, 5 stamen -2 carpels, ovary inferior with 2 locules -often have stylopodia (enlargements above ovary)Apiaceae FlowersApiaceaeschizocarp (dry fruit that splits into individual one-seeded carpels) with 2 mericaps often strongly ribbedApiaceae Fruits-many food crops: carrots, parsnips, celery -many herbs (dill, cilantro, parsley, caraway, coriander, cumin, fennel, anise) -a few deadly speciesApiaceae Economic ImportanceCaprifoliaceaethe honeysuckle family-bushes or vines -opposite leaves -pithy stemsCaprifoliaceae Vegetative Traits-flowers regular or irregular; perfect -5 united sepals (small), 5 united petals, 5 stamen (sometimes 4) -inferior ovary with 2-5 united carpelsCaprifoliaceae FlowersCaprifoliaceaefruits are berries or drupesCaprifoliaceae FruitsNot much, a few ornimentalsCaprifoliaceae Economic ImportanceConvolvulaceaethe morning glory familyvines (herbs) leaves alternate, simple, often heart or arrow shapedConvolvulaceae Vegetative Traits-regular, bisexual -5 separate sepals, 5 united petals, 5 stamen, superior ovary -usually 2 united carpels -petals fused into funnel with a star-like patternConvolvulaceae FlowersConvolvulaceaecapsuleConvolvulaceae Fruits-sweet potato -field blindweed toxic to livestock -seeds sometimes used as hallucinogensConvolvulaceae Economic ImportanceOleaceaethe olive family-shrubs and trees -leaves deciduous or evergreen; simple or compound -opposite leavesOleaceae Vegetative Traits-regular, bisexual (usually) -4 united sepals; 4 united petals (usually) -2 stamen (usually) -superior ovary with 2 united carpels -Exception: Ash trees (unisexual flowers, dioecious trees, flowers lack petals)Oleaceae FlowersOleaceaecapsule, samara, or drupeOleaceae Fruits-olives -many horticultural species (lilacs, forsythias, privets, jasmine)Oleaceae Economic ImportanceAsteraceaethe sunflower familyherbs (sometimes shrubs or trees) variable leaf arrangement, complexityAsteraceae Vegetative Traits-individual flowers (florets) usually small and clustered in heads -individual flowers attached to receptacle -individual flowers sometimes have their own bractlets (called chaff scales, paleae) -calyx of individual flowers absent or modified into pappus (bristles, scales or awns) -heads are surrounded by a gruop of bracts called phyllariesAsteraceae Flowers overallRadially symmetric tubular corolla can occur in heads by themselves or in heads with another type of flower usually perfectDisk Asteraceae Flowerstrongly zygomorphic flowers -have one strap-shaped, 3-lobed exaggerated 'petal' -usually pistillate or sterile -usually on edge of head with disk flowersRay Asteraceae FlowerStrongly zygomorphic -similar to ray flowers, except they have 5-lobed 'petal' -usually perfect -usually occur only with other ligulate flowersLigulate Asteraceae FlowersDisk Flower (asteraceae)Ray Flower (Asteraceae)Ligulate Flower (Asteraceae)Asteraceae-achenes -usually wind dispersed -pitted disk after seeds disperseAsteraceae Fruits-food: lettuce, artichokes, sunflowers -ragweed (allergies) -ornamentalsAsteraceae Economic ImportanceApocynaceaethe dogbane family-herbs, shrubs, vines, succulents, trees -milky latex sap (KEY TRAIT) -leaves usually opposite, simple, and entireApocynaceae Vegetative Traits-bisexual, regular -5 united sepals, 5 united petals, 5 stamen -ovary superior -2 mostly separate carpels (fused along styles)Apocynaceae Flowers-5 VERY UNUSUAL STAMEN -filaments modified into a corona (3rd sterile whorl derived from petals or filaments) with hoods -corona often has horn-like appendages in each lobe -gynostegium (structure of connate anthers in ring around drum shaped stigma) -pollinia in slits along gynostegiumAsclepiaoideae FlowersApocynaceae-follicles, often with seeds having tufts of hairs -wind dispersedApocynaceae Fruits-some ornamentals: periwinkle, oleander -used in chemotherapy for cancer -Apocynaceae Economic ImportanceSarraceniaceaethe pitcher plant family-herbs -leaves basal; petioles modified into tubular vase-like structures -tube has downward pointing hairs and waxy secretionsSarraceniaeceae Vegetative Traits-flowers perfect, regular -solitary or raceme inflorescence on long scape: nodding -4-5 separate sepals -5 separate petals -numerous stamen -5 fused carpels in superior ovary -in sarracenia genus, stigma is umbrella shappedSarraceniaceae Floral TraitscapsuleSarraceniaceae FruitsSarraceniaceaeminimal: hobby plant tradeSarraceniaceae Economic RolesRosaceaethe rose family-herbs, shrubs, or trees -often cyanogenic -usually alternate leaves, variable shape -stipules usually present -often serrate/toothed leavesRosaceae Vegetative Traits-flowers showy, usually radial, usually perfect -5 separate sepals and petals -numerous stamen (10+ usually) -numerous pistils (especially in rose subfamily) -hypanthium with nectar ring (fusion of base of perianth and stamen; forms a cup or disk or tube)Rosaceae Floral TraitsRosaceaelots of variability (berries, drupes, capsules, follicles, achenes) 2 specialized 'false' fruits: pomes and hipsRosaceae Fruits-many horticultural and fruit crops (roses, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, apples, pears, almonds, apricots, cherries, peaches, plums) -valuable timber: cherryRosaceae Economic ImportanceBrassicaceaethe mustard family-usually herbaceous -leaves usually alternate, variably compound, sometimes in basal rosettes -produce mustard oils in tissuesBrassicaceae Vegetative Traits-very distinct flowers!!! -raceme inflorescence -4-merous perianth with petals in cross shape -petals often yellow, white, purple, or pink -6 stamen are tetradynamous (four long and 2 short filaments)Brassicaceae FlowersBrassicaceae-2 carpel superior ovary with a replum (membrane dividing ovary) -fruit dehisces to reveal replum with seeds attached -fruits are siliques or silicles (long and slender or round, squat)Brassicaceae Fruits-canola oil -FOOD (cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kohlrabi, kale, brussel sprouts, horseradish, radish, turnips, mustard)Brassicaceae Economic ImportanceFabaceaethe bean/pea/legume family-herbs, vines, shrubs, or trees -leaves pinnate or palmate compound (occasionally simple or modified into tendrils)Papilionoideae (Fabaceae) Vegetative Traits-very unique flower structure "papilionaceous" -very zygomorphic -upper petal known as 'banner'; different in size and shape from other petals (outermost petal) -lower petals in two pairs: upper wings, lower keel -10 stamen; 1 distinct and 9 connate or all connatePapilionoideae (Fabaceae) FlowersPapilionoideae (Fabaceae)-most species have characteristic legume -two seams -sometimes indihiscentFabaceae FruitsMalvaceaethe mallow family-herbs, shrubs -leaves alternate, simple, often palmately lobed or veined -mucilaginousMalvaceae Vegetative Traits-flowers perfect, regular -various inflorescence types -sepals 5 (3) united or partially united -petals 5, separate -many stamen fused into tube around pistil (monadelphous) -5+ united carpels, superior ovary -divided style/stigmaMalvaceae Floral TraitsCapsuleMalvaceae FruitsMalvaceaeVitaceaethe grape family-woody vines (lianas) -alternate leaves, but opposite from tendrils -leaves simple and palmately veined or palmately compoundVitaceae Vegetative Traits-woody vines (lianas) -alternate leaves, but opposite from tendrils -leaves simple and palmately veined or palmately compoundVitaceae Vegetative Traits-regular, bisexual or unisexual -in various types of clusters, opposite leaves -4/5 SMALL petals and sepals (not showy) -4/5 stamen -superior ovary with 2 carpelsVitaceae FlowersVitaceaeVitaceaeberryVitaceae FruitsEuphorbiaceaethe spurge family-variable: can be herbs, shrubs, succulents, or trees -often has milky sap -produces diversity of secondary compounds; usually poisonous -leaves usually simple, stipulate; alternate arrangement -colorful bracts commonEuphorbiaceae Vegetative Traits-monoecious or dioecious (flowers imperfect) -usually 5 sepals (varies) -usually no petals -1 to many stamen -3 carpels -superior ovary -3 styles, often forkedEuphorbiaceae FlowersEuphorbiaceaeEuphorbiaceaeEuphorbiaceaecapsuleEuphorbiaceae FruitsCucurbitaceaethe gourd/squash/cucumber family-herbaceous vines with tendrils -leaves alternate, simple, palmately veinedCucurbitaceae Vegetative Traits-imperfect flowers; plants monoecious -regular flowers, usually solitary -5 sepals, and 5 fused petals in funnel shape -5 stamen, often appear twisted -inferior ovary, 3 fused carpelsCucurbitaceae FlowersCucurbitaceaeCucurbitaceaeCucurbitaceaepepo: berry with leathery thick rindCucurbitaceae FruitsFagaceaethe beech/oak family-trees or shrubs -can be evergreen or deciduous -leaves simple, alternate, toothed or lobedFagaceae Vegetative Traits-flowers unisexual; plants monoecious -4-6 sepals, 0 petals -4-40 stamen -catkin or spike -wind pollinatedFagaceae Floral Traits-inferior ovary with 3 carpels -usually solitary or small cluster -2 carpels aborted, 1 matures into NUT -has scaly or spiny cap formed from bractsFagaceae FruitsFagaceaeFagaceaeSapindaceaethe soapberry/maple family-deciduous shrubs or trees -leaves opposite or simple (usually), palmately veined (usually)Sapindaceae Acer Vegetative Traits-flowers often imperfect (not always) -can be synoecious, monoecious, dioecious -variable floral structures and inflorescence types but usually fairly non-showy -4-5 sepals, 4-5 petals (sometimes 0) -stamen 8 (4-12), distinct -2 styles (or one deeply divided), 2 carpelsSapindaceae Acer Flowers-fruits are samaras with one seed per locule (KEY TRAIT)Sapindaceae Acer FruitsSapindaceaeSapindaceaeJuglandaceaethe walnut family-trees -alternate, compound leaves -resinous and aromaticJuglandaceae Vegetative Traits-Flowers imperfect, plants monoeciousJuglandaceae Floral TraitsJuglandaceaeJuglandaceaeUlmaceaethe elm familyUlmaceae-woody vines (lianas) -alternate leaves, but opposite from tendrils -leaves simple and palmately veined or palmately compoundVitaceae Vegetative TraitsSolanaceaeLamiaceaeEricaceaeApiaceaeCaprifoliaceaeConvolvulaceaeOleaceaeBrassicaceaeFabaceae

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