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23 terms

Faults and Earthquakes

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Anticline
An upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust
Syncline
A downward fold in rock formed by compression in earth's crust
Plateau
A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level
Friction
The force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface
Fold
A bend in rock that forms where part of Earth's crust is compressed
Fault
A break in Earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other
Fault-block mountain
A mountain that forms where a normal fault uplifts a block of rock
Earthquake
The shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface
Deformation
A change in the volume or shape of Earth's crust
Seismograph
A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth
Magnitude
The measurement of an earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults
Liquefaction
The process by which an earthquake's violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud
Aftershock
An earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area
Tsunami
A large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor
Mercalli Scale
A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause. Rated from I to XII. Not precise. Earthquake can have many different ratings, depending upon how far away from the epicenter it is rated.
Richter Scale
A scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particular type of mechanical seismograph. Works well for small, nearby earthquakes, but not well for all earthquakes.
Moment Magnitude Scale
A scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake. Works well for all earthquakes.
Tension
Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
Compression
Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
Shearing
Stress the pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions
Normal Fault
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downwards. Tension occurs. Happens at divergent boundaries.
Reverse Fault
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides upwards. Compression occurs. Happens at convergent boundaries.
Strike-Slip Fault
A type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up-or-down motion. Shearing occurs. Happens at transform boundaries.