Upgrade to remove ads
Biology 1 review
Terms in this set (48)
based on the experiment, what can be inferred about cells with semi-permeable membranes
water enters the cell when placed in environments with high water concentration
the graph below shows atmospheric carbon dioxide levels since the year 1880. what conclusions can be drawn from the graph?
Concentration of carbon dioxide increases every year since 1880
what are the three parts of the cell theory?
1. All living things are made up of cells
2. cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
3. New cells are produced from existing cells
which organelles are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
how does Glucose move through a semi-permeable cell membrane?
active transport using ATP & carrier proteins
which types of cells have genetic material that is contained in a nucleus?
what is the primary function of ribosomes, mitochodria, vacuole, and nucleus
ribosomes- location for protein assembly
Mitochodria- convert chemical energy into compounds for the cell (cell powerhouse)
vacuole- stores materials for cell (water,protein, food enzymes)
nucleus- contains genetic material
DNA replication is semi-conservative- what does that mean?
produces two copies of DNA that each contain one original strand and one new strand
what are characteristics of plant cells, animal cells, and prokaryotic cells
all three have vacuoles and vesicles
how many nucleotides code for one amino acid
1. Genes for medically important proteins can be cloned and inserted into bacteria. Why can bacteria recognize a human gene and then produce a human protein?
The basic components of DNA are the same in humans and bacteria.
central dogma of biology
the genetic information in DNA is transcribed into mRNA that contains the program for synthesis of a particular protein
main function of mRNA, rRNA , tRNA
tRNA- picks up amino acids and brings to anticodon to ribosome
mRNA- carries message from nucleus
rRNA- set of proteins to form ribosomes
mitosis vs. meiosis
mitosis: asexual, 1 division, 2 cells produced, chromosome number stays the same, somatic (body cells) , identical
meiosis- sexual, gamatic cells, 2 divisions, 4 cells produced, chromosome reduction, 1/2 of original chromoses
sexual vs. asexual
sexual - genetic variation, meiosis, chromosome number 1/2 of original
asexual- no genetic variation, no meiosis, chromosome number stays same
the enzyme lactase will break down the sugar lactose into which of the following components
use the codon chart
they will still both code for Thr
what is the chemical composition of the four macromolecules
protein- amino acid
nucleic acid- nucleotide
lipid- glycerol, fatty acids
reaction with and without an enzyme
if reaction rate speeds up it lowers the activation rate
how photosynthesis and cellular respiration are interrelated
Carbon dioxide and water released by cellular respiration are used in photosynthesis
A weightlifter is using heavy weights in short bursts for a competition. Because his muscle cells are not able to take in enough oxygen to make very much ATP the weightlifter begins to get fatigue in his muscles. Which of the following processes is most likely going on in the muscles of the weightlifter as he competes in his event?
As the cells run out of oxygen they switch to anaerobic respiration, which allows the cell to make small amounts of ATP in the absence of oxygen.
Two different species of bacteria are examined. Scientists find that species X always produces CO2 and H2O during cellular respiration. Species Y always produces ethyl alcohol and CO2. Which conclusion can be made from these observations?
Only species Y is anaerobic
Water is often called the "universal solvent" because many substances can be dissolved in water. What property of water allows it to be such a versatile solvent?
polarity and cohesion
Large bodies of water, such as lakes and oceans, do not quickly fluctuate in temperature. What is the reason for this phenomenon?
Water has a high heat capacity
What information about the organisms best helps the scientists to determine the evolutionary relationships among them?
Which types of organisms developed first due to the early environmental conditions on Earth?
prokaryotic and anaerobic
how does comparing the skeletons of animals provide support for the scientific theory of evolution
it shows common ancestry
how have the jaws of hominids changed in size over time
they have gotten smaller and less protruding over time
which species is most closely related to L
Scientists are studying the evolutionary history of a group of plants in the United States, and they developed an evolutionary tree, as shown below.
Species 5 is most closely related to Species 6.
Both species 5 and 6 evolved from the same common ancestor
The Miller-Urey experiment of 1953 was designed to test the hypothesis that lightning supplied the energy needed to turn atmospheric gases into organic molecules such as amino acids. Which of the following describes why the Miller-Urey theory is widely accepted today?
The process of synthesizing organic molecules from a mixture of gases has been successfully modeled in the laboratory
Which of the following explains why cells that contained mitochondria-like organelles had an evolutionary advantage?
They were able to make more use of available energy
Over time, the climate of an island became drier, which resulted in changes to the populations of various island finch species. Finch populations with a certain beak shape thrived, while those not having that beak shape decreased. Which of the following describes a necessary condition for these changes in the finch populations to occur?
limited food resources
Alleles for the A and B blood cell antigens are codominant. The condition where no antigens are present on the blood cells (type O blood) is a recessive trait. Which set of parents can most likely produce a child with type O blood?
one parent with heterozygous type A blood, and the other parent with type O blood
If the xylem in a young tree is damaged, which process is first affected?
absorbing water from the soil
When an environment has reached its carrying capacity for a certain population, which of the following is true?
Growth and immigration rate is equal to death and emigration rate.
is the availability of food a limiting factor in a population of organisms
DDT and other pesticides used over 50 years ago are still affecting the environment today. Scientists have found these substances in recent glacier runoff. Glacier runoff occurs during the summer, when precipitation that has fallen on glaciers during the winter is released. Ice layers from existing glaciers have been analyzed. The results of this analysis show that the concentrations of DDT and other pesticides were highest about 10 years after the use of these substances was banned.
the decision of one human generation may have an impact on future generations.
When fertilizers run off farmland into streams and ponds, the nitrogen content of the water increases. This can lead to rapid growth of algae in a process called eutrophication. How can this process affect other organisms in the water?
Oxygen is used up as algae is decomposed, reducing the amount available to other organisms.
Whaling was a very profitable profession until whale populations crashed. The global community came together to enact a ban on whaling. However, Japan and Norway have not agreed to stop whaling. Which of the following is the most likely consequence of their decision?
The whale populations are not rebounding as quickly as they might if all of the countries agreed not to hunt whales.
what causes blood pressure
contraction of the ventricles in the heart
After an initial infection, B-cells recognize the measles virus. How is this helpful in human immune response?
The B-cells produce antibodies more quickly if the measles virus is encountered again.
What is the term for a strong response to a harmless antigen in the environment?
where does sperm exit to travel to the testes
How do human diseases caused by bacteria and diseases caused by viruses react to antibiotics?
Bacterial diseases respond to antibiotics; viral diseases do not.
In which of the following structures of the female human reproductive system is the blastocyst implanted during normal human development?
stem cells research has been a controversial subject in past years. What is the reason for this?
it involves the destruction of an embryo
the way crimes are solved today was affected by which of the following technologies
finger prints and other DNA analysis
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
SC.912.L.17.20 Human Impact
Biology EOC (197-209)
Drug and Alcohol Final Exam
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Biology EOC Study Guide
Practice Final Exam
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Chapter 6 vocab
Unidad 5 A & B
Chapter 3 & 4
Vocabulario de las Unidad 1 y 2 IB Spanish B
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
HY Combined Quizes (Test 1)
Fashion Merchandising Unit 2
Micro Quiz 2 Practice