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89 terms

Biology Test

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Carbon
is an example of an element
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
four most common elements in living systems
Iodine
essential to life, is a trace element
More Protons than Electrons
atom with a positive charge has
Protons
atoms of an element have the same number
nucleus
atom's protons are found here
Atomic Mass - Atomic Number
how you figure the amount of neutrons in an atom
Isotopes
have the same number of protons, and different numbers of neutrons
How do radioactive isotopes differ from isotopes
Radioactive isotopes are unstable; isotopes are stable
The way Earth moves about the sun is most like
an electron moving around the nucleus of an atom
drawings of an atom should have what?
The Electrons far away from the nucleus
2
The maximum number of electrons the first electron shell of an atom can hold
8
The maximum number of electrons the second electron shell of an atom can hold
ion
An atom with an electrical charge
ionic bond
The bond between oppositely charged ions
space-filling model
Which of the representations of molecules does NOT reveal double bonds?
Ionic bond
In the following reaction, what type of bond is holding the two atoms together?
K + Cl → K+ + Cl— → KCl
Covalent Bond
What name is given to bonds that involve the sharing of electrons?
2
Sulfur has an atomic number of 16. How many covalent bonds can sulfur form
Covalent
The hydrogens and oxygen of a water molecule are held together by what kind of bonds?
Its electrons spend more time with its oxygen than with either hydrogen
Why is water considered a polar molecule
Hydrogen
Adjacent water molecules are joined by ______ bonds
electrical attraction between the hydrogen of one water molecule and the oxygen of another water molecule
Adjacent water molecules are connected by the
24
How many oxygen atoms are in the products of the following reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 12 H2O
evolution
The branch of biology that explains both the diversity and the unity of life
The surface tension that is a result of water's cohesive properties makes this possible
Why (if you are careful) are you able to float a needle on the surface of water
evaporative cooling
Sweating cools your body by
evolution
The aspect of biology that unites all of the diverse fields of biology as a single science is
natural selection
developed by chales darwin
inherritance, unequal reproductive success, individual variation, overreproduction
required for natural selection to occur
natural selection
Unequal reproductive success
adaptation
the accumulation of favorable variations in a population over time
anabolic steroids
cause muscle growth, irritability, and depression
artificial selection
accounts for the different breeds of domesticated dogs
You will promote the evolution of bacteria resistant to that antibiotic
What will happen if you do NOT (properly) finish your antibiotic prescription
Science
the explanation of structures and processes based on verifiable observations and measurements
Discovery science leads from the specific to the general, whereas hypothesis-driven science leads from the general to the specific
the difference between discovery science and hypothesis-driven science
Scientific ideas
subjected to rigorous and repeated testing
discovery science
primarily based on observation
Inductive reasoning involves going from the specific to the general, whereas deductive reasoning involves going from the general to the specific
How does inductive reasoning differ from deductive reasoning
hypothesis
tenative explanation
deductive testing
If my car does not start and I recharge the battery, then my car will start
the control group
serves as a basis of comparison with the experimental group
Theories are more comprehensive than hypotheses
How do hypotheses differ from theories
brightly colored male lizards
are preferred by female collared lizards
observation, question, hypothesis, prediction, experiment, results, conclusion
components of the scientific method
high amounts of tryptophan in turkey
that one might feel after a large Thanksgiving dinner of turkey is likely due to
4
A single carbon atom can form a maximum of ______ covalent bond
hydrocarbon
The following molecule is best described as a ______.
CH3—CH2—CH2—CH2
-OH
hydroxyl group
amino groups
Include Nitrogen
monomer
In the following reaction, galactose is a ______.
galactose + glucose → lactose + water
dehydration reaction
What name is given to the following reaction?
galactose + glucose → lactose + water
hydrolysis
What name is given to the following reaction?
sucrose + water → glucose + fructose
Carbohydrates
C, H, and O in a 1:2:1 ratio
isomers
glucose and fructose
Disaccharide
monosaccharide + monosaccharide → ______ + water
lactase
Which component of the following reaction is the enzyme?
lactose + lactase + water → lactase + glucose + fructose
disaccharide
In the following equation, lactose is a ______.
galactose + glucose → lactose + water
TCATGAC
If one strand of a DNA double helix has the sequence AGTACTG, what will be the sequence of the other strand?
Sucrose
Table sugar
tooth decay
consumption of sugar is a major cause of
Starch
example of a polysaccharide
glycogen
Animals storage of carbohydrates
cellulose
is a fiber and is hydrophillic
hydrophobic substance
thin film floating on top of a liquid
fat
A glycerol with three fatty acids
dehydration reaction
What name is given to the following reaction?
glycerol + fatty acid → monoglyceride + water
hydrogen
Saturated fats are saturated with ______.
unsaturated
type of fatty acid has double bonds
beef
LOWEST in unsaturated fats
hydrogenated fats
are more solid
lowerd life span
Which of the following is a health effect of a diet high in saturated fats
estrogen
a steriod
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Macro Molecules
Amino acids
Monomer of proteins
Nucleotides
monomer of nucleic acids
monosaccharides
monomer of carbohydrates
fatty acids
monomer of lipids
Polymerization
a dehydration reaction, production of polymers from monomers
Depolymerization
needs addition of water. It is a process where we produce shorter polymers from longer polymers
RNA
Ribonucleic Acid, single stranded, AUGC, Nitrogen Base, Ribosugar
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid, double stranded, ATGC, Nitrogen Base, Deoxy sugar
Properties of water
Cohesion, moderation of temperature, insulation by floating ice, solvent of life
Eukaryotic Cell
10x larger, Advanced nucleus, membrane bound organelles, typically multicellular
Prokaryotic Cell
10x smaller, no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, unicellular
Protists
Unicellular, eukaryotic cell organisms, with membrane bound organelles, and advanced nucleus
archea
Prokaryotic celled organisms which like to stay in groups, and can tolerate extreme environmental conditions
Properties of Life
regulation, reproduction, response to th environment, evolutionary adaptation, order, growth and development, energy processing