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Terms in this set (62)
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
The theory developed in early modern England and spread elsewhere that royal power should be subject to legal and legislative checks.
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Sent others to explore for him, made very first explorer school, first person to value exploring
An exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.
A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors.
A pattern of exchange between Western Europe, Western Africa, North and South America, and the Caribbean. Made it easier to get goods from foreign places.
The network of trading links after 1500 that moved goods, wealth, people, and cultures around the Atlantic Ocean basin. (p. 497)
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
The system recruiting workers for particularly difficult and dangerous chores that free laborers would not accept.
labor under contract to an employer for a fixed period of time, typically three to seven years, in exchange for their transportation, food, clothing, lodging and other necessities
European trade agreement with Africa dealing with slaves brought from Africa. Integral part of Triangle Trade between the Americas, Africa, and Europe.
Slave who wrote an account of the horrible voyage from Africa to America (the Middle Passage)
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
The separation of Africans from their homeland through centuries of forced removal to serve as slaves in the Americas and elsewhere.
Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, which was the last of China's imperial dynasties.
Qing dynasty empire
Ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1912; the Qing rulers were originally from Manchuria, which had conquered China.
The Kangxi Emperor was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Pass and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722.
Emperor who reigned from 1736-1795. He was approached by Lord Macartney about liberalizing the trade restrictions; turned down the offer claiming that Europe had nothing to offer China.
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
A philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.
was a semi-feudal government of Japan in which one of the shoguns unified the country under his family's rule. They moved the capital to Edo, which now is called Tokyo. This family ruled from Edo 1868, when it was abolished during the Meiji Restoration.
A general who ruled Japan in the emperor's name
A Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
professional warriors who protect japan,lived by code of Bushido
Dutch in Nagasaki
only European people and only Japanese port open to trade during Japan's Tokugawa period
Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism. Shintoism focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
A form of Japanese theater developed in the seventeenth century that features colorful scenery and costumes and an exaggerated style of acting
Three Estates of France
1.Clergy, 2.Nobility, 3.Everyone else
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Committee of Public Safety
Powerful group, led by Robespierre, set up to defeat all enemies of the revolution.
Reign of Terror
(1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed for "disloyalty"
1769-1821. French military and political leader. General during French Revolution, Ruler of France as First Consul of French Republic, King of Italy, Mediator of Swiss Confederation, and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine.
Civil Code (Napoleonic Code)
The articles included equality of all people, freedom of religion, workers were legally subordinate to their employers and unable to strike, workers were required to have small passports, and family was the most important thing besides the state and the individual. It also addressed the legal status of women: women were not equal to men.
A major influece of the Latin American revolutions because of its successfulness; the only successful slave revolt in history; it is led by Toussaint L'Ouverture.
Was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti; in a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.
Congress of Vienna
(1814-1815 CE) Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
A belief that government can and should achieve justice and equality of opportunity.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Unification of Italy and Germany
Both countries were established in the late 1800's; wanted to prove their strength through imperialism (nationalistic)
Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898) German prime minister who intentionally provoked three wars to provide the people with a sense of nationalism.
The application of machinery to manufacturing and other activities. Among the first processes to be mechanized were the spinning of cotton thread and the weaving of cloth in late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century England. (p. 603)
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable one in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. It was then applied to machinery.
production of goods in large numbers through the use of machinery and assembly lines
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism.
Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics
Cult of Domesticity
idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands
a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudalism. Believed in a classless society.
A socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1848) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views.
Association of trade workers formed to gain higher wages and better working conditions
Abolition of Slavery
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