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Law of Supply

the rule that, holding everything else constant, increases in price cause increases in the quantity supplied, and decreases in price cause decreases in the quantity supplied.

Law of Demand

A law which states that when supplies of goods and services become plentiful, prices tend to drop. When supplies become scarcer, prices tend to rise.


the amount of goods and services people are willing to buy

cost/benefit analysis

Analyzing a situation, predicting the likely possible outcomes, and deciding what prices are worth paying and what outcomes to pursue.

product market

where all sales of consumer products take place

factor market

where all sales of the factors of production take place


those who utilize services or products, and those who pay the bills.

1. taste
2. income
3. cost of relate products
4. number of potential customers

determinants of demand


the affect that a change in price has on demand


the term given for the number of units that a firm is willing to sell.

substitute goods

goods that can be used in place of each other.

diminishing returns

the result of paying over time, hiring less skilled workers, or simply the result of over-crowded. If a firm becomes too big it loses it's connection with the customer.


amount of a product that a firm offers for sale in excess of the quantity that customers are willing to buy.


amount of the product customers want to buy in excess of the quantity that a firm offers for sale.

circular flow model

A chart that shows the flow of money, goods and services, and the four factors of production

complementary goods

Two goods that are used together

Supply curve

a curve that shows the relationship between the price of a product and the quantity of the product supplied.


the point at which quantity demanded and quantity supplied are equal

Price inelasticity

No matter how high the price gets, people will still buy certain products.

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