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Foundations of Theo: Section 2
Terms in this set (236)
The New Testament is a ____ of early chrisitian literature (NOT ____). Collection of ____ different document comprise the New Testament.
language of the new testament, which means...
greek, already a language removed from Jesus' language
What are the 4 basic divisions?
1) Gospels (4)
2) History (1)
3) Letters (21)
4) Apocalypse (1)
what is the history section of the New Testament
Acts of the Apostles
What is the Apocalypse section of the New Testament
Book of Revelation
What are two characteristics of the New Testament
-___ not ___
-___, not neutral (Christian (not Jewish)) point of view
selective not comprehensive
-_____ - all 4 gospels are ___, tradition has associated the names with them, didn't come from authors
time period of new testament
jesus dies around ____
the NT docs are written ____
rules over Nazareth when Jesus grows up. John is killed in Perea under Herod Antipas's rule
Under Herod Antipas, ___ ___ begin to rule over the area
Potential sources for the knowledge of Jesus
-Collection of Sayings
What are the main sources of archaeologic evidence for Jesus' existence
1) The Pilate inscription
2) Jewish Burial Practices
What is the Pilate Inscription?
-Caesara Martima-- where procurators stayed most of the time
-An inscription from pilate, mentioned in the NT that pilate built as house in honor of someone was excavated post WWII
What are the main sources of jewish burial practice for the archeological evidence of Jesus?
-The Talpiyot Tomb
-high priest who presided over high court
-found "in situ" = on site by profession archaeologists
-don't want artifacts (unprovenanced = don't know where it came from)
Name on Ossuary = "James, son of Jospeh, brother of Jesus"
-unprovenanced - owner under investigatiion for artifact fraud already so probably not real
The Talpiyot Tomb
-Talpiyot = suburb of Jerusalem
-rumored that the ossuaries show Jesus and Mary Magdalene were married and had a love child
There is ___,____, and ____ literary evidence for Jesus' existence
Jewish, Pagan, Christian
What are the 4 key problems with the literary evidence for Jesus?
1) Jesus does not write anything that has survived -- only reports of what he did
2) Almost all of the sayings are preserved in translation-- one language removed from Aramaic
"Abba" = Aramaic word meaning little father
3) All of our sources are biased -- either pro-Jesus or anti-Jesus
4) All 3 types (jewish, pagan, christian) attribute to Jesus things he did not say and things he did not do
Pagan literature sources for Jesus
-Tactius- mentions Jesus in regards to a fire that destroyed part of Rome. Widely believed that the fire was ordered by Emperor Nero--scapegoat chosen was the christians [already hated by the majority]
2 Jewish literature sources for Jesus?
-Later Jewish Tradition
- Sanhedrin--name of Jewish high court (concerned with James NOT Jesus
- Testimonium Falvianum
- interpolation - insert additional material into a text OR edited by Christians to present Jesus more positively now becomes Christian evidence
Later Jewish Tradition
Yeshu(a) Ben Panthera
--> Ben = son of
--> Panthera = name of Roman soldier who seduced/ raped many
Christians claim Jesus is born of _____
Partherios = virgin
Christian sources for Jesus
-correspondence of Abgar and Jesus
-Isolated individual sayings (Agrapha (many blatantly NOT by Jesus))
Joseph of Arimathea
pays Pilate for Jesus' body and buries it in a tomb instead of a mass grave in the ground like how other criminals would be buried at that time
Collections of Sayings
Clement of Rome (early Christian writer)
1) Canonical -- found in NT
Examples of Apocryphal gospels
- protoevangelium of James (Infancy gospel of James)
-Infancy (boyhood) Gospel of Thomas
- Coptic Gospel of Jesus
-Gospel of Jesus' Wife
protoevangelium of James (Infancy gospel of James)
-prequel before Jesus' birth
-Mary's parents were childless and they vow if they get a child they will give him/her to God (she grows up in temple)
-Jesus is born in a cave
Infancy (boyhood) Gospel of Thomas
-clay sparrow story
-Jesus killed a boy
---> both show Christian imagination attributing things to Jesus
Coptic Gospel of Jesus
-Nag Hammadi (written in coptic)
Gospel of Jesus' wife
-Synoptic (Matthew, Mark, Luke)
-John ( placement of events in Jesus' life is different)
how does one explain the similarities and differences between Matthew, Mark, and Luke
____ was written first
____ uses Mar as a source when he wrties
Matthew AND Luke
another source used by both Matthew and Luke
___ and ___ are the 2 sources used to write Matthew and Luke
Q and Mark
(WITHOUT M AND L)
source only used by Matthew
source only used by Luke
Ex: Our Father is found only in Matthew and Luke which means this is _____ material
ex: Good Samaritan story is L material which means it is only found in ____
What are the earliest documents in the New Testament?
greek word meaning good news
IN his letters, Paul uses the word ___: ...
Christ died for our sins in accordance with scripture, was buried, rose again and appeared to some
the gospel consists of the death and resurrection of Jesus, not Jesus' life
first to apply the term gospel to a written work -> extends the meaning of the term gospel
What is the genre "gospel"?
-ancient biography -- not interested in HOW you develop, it is STATIC showing how as a child you show traits that will later characterize you
ex: Jesus in the temple teaching, learning as a child
Authorship of Mark
-tradition: Mark -> associated with Peter
Place of Mark
-compostition places in traditionally in rome (where peter dies)
Sources of Mark
mark is the creator of....
the synoptic outline of Jesus' life
Baptism -> Death and Resurrection ; the middle is
What is the date of Mark? significance?
70 -- destruction of 2nd temple and fall of Jerusalem
Style of Mark
proxility -- fondness for details. Shortest gospel but more details
defining characteristics of Mark
1) Son of God
2) Series of 3
3) Watershed Event
watershed event in Mark
event in any narration that changes the flow of that narrative (Peter's confession)
A and B
A1 B A2
A and B have something to do with each other
Jesus' trial vs Peter's trial : location
court vs courtyard
Jesus' trial vs Peter's trial : identity in question
Jesus vs Peter
Jesus' trial vs Peter's trial : who is questioning
high priest vs high priest's slave girl
Jesus' trial vs Peter's trial : validity of witness testimony
false vs true
Jesus' trial vs Peter's trial : condemnation?
condemned vs condemns himself
Jesus' trial vs Peter's trial : prophecy?
prophesy! vs prophecy fulfilled
Textual criticism for the ending of mark
what did the gospel of mark look like originally? the oldest/best manuscripts end at 16:8 (women go to tomb but don't tell anyone)
Characteristics of the Markan Jesus
-the messiah incognito
-the messianic secret
mechanisms for maintaining secrecy of the messiah
1)injunctions to silence
2)heavenly voice at the baptism
3) responses to questions
injunctions to silence
"tell no one what you have seen"
taking abstract thoughts and communicating what they mean. Mark does not think of parables like this, he things of them as RIDDLES
Who misunderstands the Messiah?
1) The scribes
2) Herod Antipas
3) John's countrymen
5) Bystanders at the Cross
elaborate on the scribes misunderstanding the messiah
Elaborate on Herod Antipas misunderstanding the messiah
has JBap executed (beheaded) and thinks Jesus is JBap come back to life
Mark uses the term "hearts harded" a lot, what does this mean
worst biblical insult
Matthew takes of approximately ___% of Mark
In addition to using Mark, Matthew __ ___ and __ ___
adds material and edits Mark
What material does Matthew add?
-appearance by risen Jesus
-ends with the "great commission" -- baptize everyone and teach them to obey everything I have taught you --> unlimited
-sermon on the mount
What does it mean that Matthew edits Mark?
greek wording meaning church
-only gospel to have the word chruch in it
-read more often in Church than any other gospel
Matthew's Treatment of Markan theme : Messianic secret
sometimes he keeps it, sometimes he doesn't; not as well maintained as a secret
Matthew's Treatment of Markan theme: disciples
-upgrades the disciples
-disciples will have a basic understanding of the parables, Jesus will deepen this understanding
(Mark depicts them negatively, Matthew improves this)
Matthew's Treatment of Markan theme : miracles
Walking on water story, Matthew adds the part about Peter trying to walk on water and winds seizing when he gets in boat and the disciples say TRULY you are the SON OF GOD
Matthew's Treatment of Markan theme: disciples understanding of the passion prediction
Mark: disiples "didn't know what was going on but were afraid to ask him what he meant"
Matthew: disciples are greatly distressed when they hear about the passion prediction
Matthew's Treatment of Markan theme: James and John
Mark: James and John show a blatant grab of power
Matthew: their mother makes a blatant grab for power
Matthew's disciples have a better __ of __ __
understanding of Jesus' teachings
In Matthew ____ calls Jesus teacher, in Mark ____ call him teacher
Matthew's Treatment of Markan theme: Question about the Great Commandment
Matthew has rewritten this character as someone out to get Jesus
Matthew's Treatment of Markan theme: Jesus' anger
Jesus is never said to be angry is Matthew
What is Jesus never said to be angry in Matthew?
1) Expected that we all feel angry but we ignore the anger (cultural difference) dont want Jesus to be seen as bd
2) doesn't want Jesus to seem like he is contradicting his own teaching
Matthew's Treatment of Markan theme: miracles
Miracles in Mark have a lot more bystanders (many characters in Mark who don't speak/do anything, Matthew has removed these characters)
In Matthew, the stories are focused just on ....
Jesus and the person being healed; removes the extraneous characters
-highlights Jesus and the sick person
-faith is important for these miracles to happen
Luke is __ ___ of a __ __ work
volume 1 of a 2 volume work
Luke is dedicated to ___ who is ...
Theophilus, likely a patron (financial supporter) of the work
The 52 chapters (about 1/4) of the NT is just ...
Luke and Acts
Luke is a history of the Jesus movement (___+ years)
Jesus' trial vs Peter's trial : confess or deny?
confess vs deny
___% of Mark is included in Luke
"Proof of the Prophecy" Motif
in Luke it is seeing in the life of Jesus, the fulfillment of ancient Israelite prophecy
Luke talks a lot about ___
What are 2 main points of L material
1) the parable of the Good Samaritan
2) Story of Samaritan leper (1 of 10 who goes back to say thank you)
Luke ends with Jesus in ___
Where does Acts start?
Acts: __ __ __
witness to Jesus
Where is it implied that Mark takes place
Luke is a ___ history
Where does Luke take place
Risen Jesus appears in __ and tells them to __ ___
What happens between Jesus and Satan in Luke
-Satan departs from Jesus until opportune time (beginning)
-opportune time: Satan entered Judas (end)
RESULT: Jesus' ministry relatively free of Satan's influence
Where does Matthew take place
Two main points of Lukan Theology
1) Jesus as a man of prayer
2) The Messianic secret
The Lord's prayer is __ material
The Messianic secret in luke:
-the secret of messianic ___
-__ __ (only until....)
deliberate concealment, only concealed until after Jesus has suffered and died
Lukan disciples have ___ ___. It is the __ __ who....
Risen Jesus opens their minds/hearts and interprets scripture
What is an example of where Jesus is mentioned in the OT?
Isaiah 53 discusses a suffering servant
At gethsemene, in Mark the disciples..... In Luke...
Sleep 3x more in Mark
sleep 1x in Luke because of their grief
Matthew vs Luke: Where does the genealogy start?
M: at the beginning
L: between baptism and temptation
Matthew vs Luke: who do they trace genealogy back to?
L: Adam/son of God
Matthew vs Luke: who do they trace lineage through around David?
Matthew vs Luke: women?
M: women mentioned
L: no women
why would Matthew mention women if they are all hookers or similar?
1) they are all non-Israelites; foreigners
2) none ever blamed for any of the actions they take
Matthew vs Luke: Joseph's father?
Matthew's infancy narrative has __ __ of Joseph and one of Magi
basic outline of Matthew's infancy narrative
-angel's message to joseph
-visit of Magi to a house in bethlehem
-flight to egypt
-massacre of the children
-return to Israel
-Move to Nazareth
In Luke, Jesus' birth is interwoven with ...
the birth of John
Basic outline of Luke's infancy narrative?
-angel's message to Mary at Nazareth
-Journey to Bethlehem and Birth of Jesus, who is placed in a manger
-Angel's message to shepherds and their visit to the manger
-Circumcision on the 8th day
-Journey to Jerusalem for Mary's purification and presentation
-Return to Nazareth
Matthew vs Luke: who is the infancy narrative focused on?
Matthew vs Luke: Joseph and Mary are residents of ____
Matthew vs Luke: shepherds or magi
Matthew vs Luke: where is jesus when he is born?
Matthew vs Luke: After Jesus' birth, journey to ___
M: Egypt and avoid Jerusalem
Matthew vs Luke: What is Jerusalem's reaction to Jesus' birth?
Matthew vs Luke: what is Jesus called ?
Matthew vs Luke: How old is Jesus when he arrives in Nazareth?
In which gospel is it most shown that Peter is the leading disciple?
matthew and luke
Peter as leading disciple in matthew
-in conjuction with Peter's confession of Jesus as the Messiah
-"You are Peter and on this rock I will build my church"
petros/petra = rock in greek; emphasizes Peter's importance
Peter as leading disciple in Luke
peter is called to be a catches of men/people
Matthew vs Luke: Sermon on the ___
Matthew vs Luke: beatitude description
M: characterize spiritual qualities
L: material qualities and socioeconomic status; woes; predict a reversal of circumstances after death [Lazarus parable]
Description of passion in Mark
-most somber; unrelenting narrative
-Jesus dies alone and rejected
-betrayed with Judas' kiss; denied 3x by peter; other 10 desert him
-Haters come to mock him
-crucified next to 2 criminals who ridicule him until the end
-only some women sympathizers
-"My God, My God, Why have you foresaken me?"
Passion in Matthew
-retains basic features of Mark's somber account
-Responsibility for Jesus' death examined
-Judas feels guilty and tries to return money and throws it on ground, and hangs himself. Of the 12 only Judas tries to repent and fix things
-sanhedrin picks up Judas' blood money and symbolically assume guilt
-Pilate's wife knows Jesus is innocent and tries to warn him
-ONLY IN MATTHEW pilate washes his hands of the responsibilty for Jesus' death and the crowd accepts the blood for them and their children
Passion in Luke
-relieves the intensity of Mark's account
-Jesus as innocent
What are some examples of ways Luke relieves Markan intensity
-Judas doesn't actually kiss Jesus in Mark
-the 10 don't run away in Luke
-Simon of Syrene carries Jesus' cross
-"Father into your hands I commend my spirit"
-Jesus is in control, knows what is going on, heals and forgives (DIES AN INNOCENT MAN)
IN ___ JEsus is sent to Herod ANtipas
IN __ and ___ 3x pilate declares Jesus innocent, herod does the same, after death centurion says surely this man was the son of God
Mattew and LUke
Synoptics vs John: Messianic Secret
J: open messiahship
Synoptics vs John: preaching theme
S: kingdom of God
J: his own identity "Iam"
Synoptics vs John: parables
S: Kingdom of God
J: no parables; allegories
Synoptics vs John: exorcisms
S: Kingdom of God
J: no exorcisms -> miracles as "signs" point to Jesus' own identity
Synoptics vs John: passion/suffering
S: Passion is time of Jesus' suffering
J: "Suffer" is absent in John --> time of Jesus' glorification
Synoptics vs John: apostles
S: 12 apostles
J: "The twelve", never called apostles; friends; "The Beloved Disciple"
Synoptics vs John: Existence before birth in Bethlehem?
Synoptics vs John: Last supper and crucifixion
S: Regular meal; passover meal after Jesus dies
J: Jesus eats passover meal at Last Supper; dies, buried; Jesus is the Passover meal
The Nature of Jesus's person in the Greco-Roman world
"divine man" -- has not only god-given talents and abilities but also a god-like nature' divine feats in athletics, poetry, etc
Hellenistic Judaism -- Moses
Logos-- Moses is a mediator between God and humans (Moses isn't a god but is greater than man; a divine human
approaches to the existence of 4 gospels
-keep 4 and separate them
convinced Jesus was the Messiah but not God (fully human)-- Matthew
Luke edited to get rid of problematic passages
diatessaion (one gospel produced from 4)
Where does Jesus resurrect and appear in Acts?
The Ascension happens only in...
Luke and Acts
What happens with Judas' death and replacement in Acts?
Judas opens and his blood and guts spill out --> field of blood. Cast lost --> Matthias takes Judas's place
has a field, donates it and sells proceeds to the Church
To be considered a candidate to be an apostle, must have...
been with Jesus through his entire ministry
The Day of Pentecost
birthday of the church
-disciples receive holy spirit
-Peter preaches first sermon
Church is depicted with ___
IDea of all things in common / friendship comes from the __ __ ___. But this time it is ___ not ___ who brings about the golden age
Roman golden age
Christ not Caesar
Anonias and Sapphira
lie about what they are giving; not a problem that they keep some of the proceeds of the land
Hebrew and Hellenist Widows
Hellenists complain against HEbrews for not distributing food evenly to widows, apostles approve the commitee. The committee that is chosen are all Hellenists (subject of discrimination).
Who are most important committee members?
Stephen and Philip
Peter and John-- external conflict
arrested and brought before the Sanhedrin after telling the beggars to rise and walk becasue they did this in teh name of Jesus not "God."-- the Sanhedrin warns them to never teach or heal in the name of Jesus
The Twelve -- external conflict
member of the sanhedrin; Gamaliel
-Gamaliel advises the Sanhedrin to leave the 12 alone and see what happens. Maybe it's a fad but maybe it's from God
Steven -- external conflict
leader Hellenist from the food distribution committee
-he preaches, charged with Blasphemy, brought before the Sanhedrin; Steeven riles up the Sanhedrin; Steven is stoned--> becomes the first Christian martyr and his death inaugurated the first persecution
Samaria and Syria
1st Great Persecution and Scattering of the disciples
Proclamation by the scattered disciples/ Hellenists
-Philip goes to Samaria . The Samarians believe and Philip baptizes them
-anonymous disciples go to Antioch in Syria and proclaim the gospel to the gentiles
Confrimation of the conversion in samaria and syria
Samaria -- peter and John receive the HOly Spirit
Antioch -- Barnabas
Options for conversion
proselyte or God-fearer
kept minimum amount of law to be able to associate with the Jews
When Cornelius is converted he beomces a ____
Cornelius ahs a vision...
to send for Peter. The Holy Spirit comes to Cornelius and he now interprets his vision as God telling him that Gentiles can be accpeted into teh Church. Peter baptizes Cornelius and they eat a meal together. Cornelius returns to Jerusalem and is in trouble for eating with an uncircumcised man. Cornelisu is the "test-case" for the gentiel mission. Big issues in early Church is the terms of entry for non-Jews to become Christians
Herod Agrippa I
Second great persecution
second great persecution
taragets christians, including apostles
-leads to the first death of an apostle (James the brother of John)
-Peter is arrested and put in prison (about to be killed) but God sends an angel to rescue him. He flees Jerusalem. Peter tells the people to tell James the Lord's brother (New leader of the Jerusalem Church) where he went
Two Major Sources for the study of Paul
some of Paul's letters and Acts
Authroship of acts
anonymous, traditionally associated with Luke
Major features of Paul's life
-3 great missionary journeys
where is the home base for Paul's missionary journeys?
antioch of syria
where was the term Christian coined?
antioch of syria
the word Christian only occurs 3 times in the NT. It is usually associated with ___
Agabius warns Paul that if he goes to Jerusalem he will be ___ . paul doesn't care (he will die for Jesus) so he...
Jerusalem temple incident
-rumor that Paul has brought these gentiles into the temples with him
-Moms justice kicks in on the streets. There is a riot.
goes in to quiet the riot. Actually thinks Pual is an Egyptian leading a revolt so he arrests Paul. At that points Pual asks for permission to address the crowd
speech ends with an uproar. Claudius is afriad, and a riot will break out again
what happens after Paul's first apology?
Claudius tells one of his soldiers to flog Paul until they get information out of him. Claudiusis about to violate one of Paul's rights as a Roman citizen. Claudius then treats Paul with respect
Pauls 2nd apology
What is the Sanhedrin's plot
-40 Jewish men swear not to eat or drink until they have assassinated Paul
-Claudius Lysias finds out and does not want a Roman citizen to be killed on his watch
-wants to get Paul to Casearea Maritima
-Claudius sends 200+ soldiers to go with Paul to Caesarea
-Paul is back in Caesarea Maritima and is under guard
Paul's 3rd Apology
-He stays in Caesurea under arrest throughout Felix's term of office. Paul must explain this story to Felix's successor (Festus)
Paul's 4th apology
Paul's 5th apology
-the emperor sitting on the throne is Nero
-first 5 years of Nero's reign are a golden age
Paul then journeys from __ to Rome
rights of roman citizens
-not to be tortured
-if accused of crime, have Roman emperor hear your case
Acts ends with Paul ...
in house arrest awaiting trial before Nero
Paul's 3 destinations in his missionary journeys
3) asia minor
barnabas is travelling companion
(modern europe) Silas and Timothy
--macedonia: PHilippi and THessalonians
asia minor (ephesus)
timothy and Titus (Paul's tough guy
Paul's letters/ Pauline Corpus contains...
13 letters that bear Paul's name
arrangement of Paul's letters
-canonical arrangement according to descending length not chronological
Paul's letters to Hebrews
anonymous document; not signed
--for a while it was getnerally believed to be written by Paul
--no modern scholar thinks Hebrews is written by Paul
Paul's undisputed letters
Romans, 1 & 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, Philemon
Paul's __ disputed letters
currently debated Paul's letters
2 Thessalonians, Colossians
Paul's letters that are Psedonymous
-Pastoral epistles: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus
Style of Paul's letters
diatribe = "anticipating objections" -- conversation between author and interlockter/imaginary dialogue partner
Vocabulary of Paul's letters
standard vocab and conventions
Paul's letters reflect...
low church structure, no ordination, high participation
Paul's undisputed letters reflect...
high church structure
Paul's name switch
ACTS Saul (trad Jewish name) --> Paul (Greco_Roman name)
when does Paul's name switch in Acts?
when we enter the larger Greco-Roman world
paul's place of birth
tarsus of cilicia
Traditional view of Paul's early years
tarsus goes to Jerusalem for advanced education
Revisionist view of Paul's early years
already in Jerusalem as a child
Social status and education: 12 vs Paul
12: manual laborers/tax collectors; uneducated; lower classes
-Acts: citizen of both Tarsus and Rome
-Paul: highly educated "upper middle" class
sect: 12 vs Paul
Relation to Jesus: 12 vs Paul
Paul: outsider (begins as persecutor of the Jesus movement)
Paul as a persecutor
both Acts and the letters depict him as someone who also violently opposed the Christians
Attitude of Gamaliel
leave them alone, see if it's a fad
who is Gamaliel
why does Gamaliel say Christianity might be a fad?
-religious zeal for Jewish traditions
-Death of Jesus by crucifixion -- a crucified man was understood to be cursed by God; How could a cursed man be God's Messiah?
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