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Ways of the World Unit 4-6 Vocab
Terms in this set (263)
1780-1890 movement: slavery is abolished in most places, mainly Britain and US.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Document drawn up by the French National Assembly in 1789 that proclaimed equal rights of all men; ideologically launched French Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Woman
Short work written by French feminist Olympe de Gouges 1791 & made the argument that the French Revolutionaries must include women.
French representative assembly called into session by Louis XVI to address problems and out of which the French Revolution emerged; the three estates were the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners.
West African settlement in Sierra Leone which British naval commanders freed Africans they rescued from illegal slave ships.
Massive dislocation of French society (1789-1815) that overthrew the monarchy, destroyed most of the French aristocracy, and launched radical reforms of society that were lost again, though only in part, under Napoleon's imperial rule and after the restoration of the monarchy.
Gens de couleur libres
Literally, "free people of color"; term used to describe freed slaves and people of mixed racial background in Saint Domingue on the eve of the Haitian Revolution.
Name that revolutionaries gave to the former French colony of Saint Domingue; the term means "mountainous" or "rugged" in the Taino language.
The only fully successful slave rebellion in world history; the uprising in the French Caribbean colony of Saint Domingue (later renamed Haiti) was sparked by the French Revolution and led to the establishment of an independent state after a long and bloody war (1791-1804).
Socially radical peasant insurrection that began in Mexico in 1810 and that was led by the priests Miguel Hidalgo and José Morelos.
Latin American revolutions
Series of risings in the Spanish colonies of Latin America (1810-1826) that established independence of new states from Spanish rule but there were more rights for the elites.
First leader of the Haitian Revolution, a former slave (1743-1803) who wrote the first constitution of Haiti and served as the first governor of the newly independent state.
Movement that claimed that women have value in society because women have a distinctive and vital role as mothers
French head of state from 1799 until 1814; preserved much of the French Revolution under an autocratic system and responsible for the spread of revolutionary ideals through his conquest of Europe.
A clearly defined territory whose people have a sense of common identity and destiny, thanks to ties of blood, culture, language, or common experience.
The focusing of citizens' loyalty on the notion that they are part of a "nation" with a unique culture, territory, and destiny; first became a prominent element of political culture in the nineteenth century.
North American Revolution
Successful rebellion conducted by the colonists of parts of North America (not Canada) against British rule (1775-1787); a conservative revolution whose success assured property rights but established republican government over monarchy.
The "little" (or poor) white population of Saint Domingue, which played a significant role in the Haitian Revolution.
Seneca Falls Conference
The first organized women's rights conference, which took place at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Leading figure of the early women's rights movement in the United States (1815-1902).
The revolutionary violence in France in 1793-1794, radicals under the leadership of Maximilien Robespierre executed tens of thousands of people deemed enemies of the revolution.
In prerevolutionary France, the term used for the 98 percent of the population that was neither clerical nor noble, and their representatives at the Estates General; in 1789, declared itself a National Assembly and launched the French Revolution.
The last Inca emperor; in the 1780s, a Native American rebellion against Spanish control of Peru took place in his name
Engine that operated by using steam instead of human/animal energy. Drove the industrial revolution.
Socialism in the US
Fairly minor political movement in the United States, at its height in 1912 gaining 6% of the vote for its presidential candidate.
Russian Revolution of 1905
Russian workers unapproved of Russia's working conditions and many workers in St. Petersburg and Moscow went on strike. It was brutally suppressed but the Tsar had no choice to make more substantial reforms- a constitution, legalized trade unions, political parties and a national assembly.
Used by Karl Marx to describe the industrial working class; originally used in ancient Rome to describe the poorest part of the urban population.
American political movement that advocated reform measures to correct the ills of industrialization.
(Late 19th century) American political movement that denounced corporate interests of all kinds.
Peter the Great
(r. 1689-1725 CE) Ruler of Russia who included vast administrative changes, enlargement and modernization of Russian military forces, new educational system for sons of noblemen, and dozens of manufacturing enterprises.
Socialist thinker and wealthy mill owner who created an ideal industrial community at New Lanark, Scotland.
First automobile affordable enough for a mass market; produced by American industrialist Henry Ford.
Middle Class Values
The middle class (in Britain) valued thrift, hard work, a rigid morality, and the right to vote. Overall, they were the most concerned with respectability.
Long and bloody war in which Mexican reformers from the middle class joined with workers and peasants to overthrow the dictator Porfirio Diaz and create a new, much more democratic political order.
German expatriate known for his ideas in socialism and the Communist Manifesto.
Lower Middle Class
By the end of the 19th century, this was 20% of Britain's population and provided new employment opportunities for women, as well.
Pen name of Russian Bolshevik Vladimir Ulyanov, main leader of Russian Revolution of 1917.
Latin American Export Boom
Large-scale increase in Latin American exports to industrializing countries, mostly raw materials and foodstuffs. Possible by improvements in shipping, boom benefited mostly upper/middle classes.
Britain's working class, was 70% of Britain's population and approved largely of socialism.
Indian Cotton Textiles
India was the main producer of inexpensive and well-made cotton that was exported to Europe. The competition between Indian and British textile industries drove each other to keep improving.
Elected representative assembly created in Russia by Tsar Nicholas II in response to the 1905 revolution.
Dictator in Mexico from 1876-1911 who was overthrown by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata and their followers in a bloody revolution.
A new form of colonialism that was expressed in the power of foreign investors.
Major international conflict in which British and French forces defeated Russia; the defeat prompted reforms within Russia.
Military strongmen who seized control of the government in Latin America.
Caste War of Yucatan
A prolonged struggle of the Maya people of Mexico and the European/Mestizo invaders.
British Royal Society
An association of "natural philosophers" (scientists) established in 1660 saw its role as producing "useful knowledge" and pamphlets about science.
Used by Karl Marx to describe owners of industrial capital, "townspeople".
Africanization of Christianity
Conversion of millions to Christianity, who maintained traditions with new Christian ideas; continued using charms and medicines, believing in old gods and spirits
System in South Africa to limit the social and political integration of whites and blacks
Prominent scholar and political leader who argued that every civilization has its own unique contribution to show the world
Large-scale agricultural production of crops to sell in the market rather than for consumption by the farmers
A pattern of European racism in Asian and African colonies, creating racial divides, and limited native access to education and the civil service system because of notions of racial superiority
European tendency to invent new distinct tribes, reinforcing that African societies were primitive (and inferior) to Europeans
Congo Free State
African nation ruled by Belgium; Leopold II's rule here is known to be the worst abuse of Europe's second wave of colonization, resulting in millions of deaths
the King of Belgium; his rule of the Congo Free State is thought of as the worst abuse of Europe's second wave of colonization, resulting in millions of deaths
System of forced labor in the Netherlands' East Indies where peasants had to cultivate at least 20 percent of their land in cash crops to sell to low and fixed prices to government contractors, who earned large profits
Indian Rebellion, 1857-1858
Massive uprising of India against British rule, known as Indian Mutiny or Sepoy Mutiny as the rebellion first broke out among Indian troops in British employ
term used to describe areas (like Latin America and China) that were dominated by Western Powers but still retained their own governments and a measure of independence
invention of tradition
a process in many colonial states of forging ways of belonging and self-identification that defined and mythologized the region's past
scramble for Africa
the process of the European countries' partition of Africa in the late 19th century
leading religious figure in 19th century India; advocate of revived Hinduism and its mission to reach out to the spiritually impoverished West
the main beneficiaries in Western colonies in Asia and Africa; schooled in the imperial power's language and practices, became a part of the social hierarchy, but led anticolonial movements due to inequality to win equal state to colonizers
Movement of Turkish military and civilian elites that developed ca. 1900, eventually bringing down the Ottoman Empire.
Group of would-be reformers in the mid-nineteenth century Ottoman Empire that included lower-level officials, military officers, and writers; they urged the extension of Westernizing reforms to the political system.
Series of nineteenth-century treaties in which China made major concessions to Western powers.
Rulers of Japan from 1600 to 1868.
Important reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839; the term "Tanzimat" means "reorganization".
Massive Chinese rebellion that devastated much of the country between 1850 and 1864; it was based on the millenarian teachings of Hong Xiuquan.
An application of the concept of "survival of the fittest" to human history in the nineteenth century.
"the sick man of Europe"
Western Europe's unkind nickname for the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a name based on the sultans' inability to prevent Western takeover of many regions and to deal with internal problems; it fails to recognize serious reform efforts in the Ottoman state during this period.
Ottoman sultan (r. 1789-1807) who attempted significant reforms of his empire, including the implementation of new military and administrative structures.
China's program of internal reform in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the West.
Armed retainers of the Japanese feudal lords, famed for their martial skills and loyalty; in the Tokugawa shogunate, gradually became an administrative elite, but they did not lose their special privileges until the Meiji restoration.
Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905
Ending in a Japanese victory, this war established Japan as a formidable military competitor in East Asia and precipitated the Russian Revolution of 1905.
Two wars fought between Western powers and China (1839-1842 and 1856-1858) after China tried to restrict the importation of foreign goods, especially opium; China lost both wars and was forced to make major concessions.
U.S. Navy commodore who in 1853 presented the ultimatum that led Japan to open itself to more normal relations with the outside world.
The overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan in 1868, restoring power at long last to the emperor Meiji.
Term commonly used to describe areas that were dominated by Western powers in the nineteenth century that retained their own governments and a measure of independence, e.g., Latin America and China.
Chinese religious leader (1814-1864) who sparked the Taiping Uprising and won millions to his unique form of Christianity, according to which he himself was the younger brother of Jesus, sent to establish a "heavenly kingdom of great peace" on earth.
Feudal lords of Japan who retained substantial autonomy under the Tokugawa shogunate and only lost their social preeminence in the Meiji restoration.`
The collapse of China's imperial order, officially at the hands of organized revolutionaries but for the most part under the weight of the troubles that had overwhelmed the government for the previous half-century.
Rising of Chinese militia organizations in 1900 in which large numbers of Europeans and Chinese Christians were killed.
Abd al-Hammid II
Ottoman sultan (r. 1876-1909) who accepted a reform constitution but then quickly suppressed it, ruling as a reactionary autocrat for the rest of his long reign.
Western mongol group that created a substantial state and provoked Qing expansion.
Tribute that Russian rulers demanded from people of Sibera (often furs).
Area of what is now central and eastern Russia. Unsuited to agriculture but rich in mineral resources.
Colonies in which people settled in large numbers rather than sending small numbers to exploit the region. (Noteworthy in British colonies)
Dynasty of China from 1644-1912. The rulers were originally from Manchuria.
Agricultural system based on African slavery used in Brazil, the Caribbean, and southern colonies in North America.
A term used to describe people living in Latin America who had been born in Spain. They claimed superiority over people born in the Americas.
Major Islamic state centered on Anatolia and came to include the Balkans, the near east, and much of North Africa.
Term for people of mixed African and European blood.
Successful empire of India founded by Muslim Turks (1526). Tried to create partnerships between Hindus and Muslims.
Term for the mixed-race population of Spain colonial societies in the Americas.
Economic theory: Governments best serve the states' economic interests by encouraging exports and accumulating bullion. (Gold and silver bars, precious metals, etc)
Special tax on non-muslims in Islamic states. (Mughal empire abolished it for a while)
The Great Dying
The impact of European epidemic diseases on the Americas.
Prevailing winds of the Atlantic which blow steadily in the same direction. Once understood, it was possible for European colonization to America.
Tribute of boy children that the Ottoman Turks took from their Christian subjects in the Balkans. The boys were raised for service in the civil administration or Janissary infantry corps.
Spaniards born in the Americas.
Capital of Byzantine Empire. In 1453, it fell to the Ottoman invaders, the end of Christian Byzantium.
Spanish conquerers of Native American lands. (Aztec and Inca)
Transatlantic interaction and exchange between the Americans and Afro-Eurasia. Began in period of European exploration and colonization.
Mughal emperor (1658-1707). Attempted to impose Islamic supremacy.
Mughal emperor (1556-1605). Policies tolerated religion and were very inclusive.
Name given to the spread of African peoples across the Atlantic via the slave trade.
Case of the Dutch forcibly taking control of the spice trade; nearly the entire population of these nutmeg-producing islands was killed or enslaved and then replaced with Dutch planters.
British/Dutch East India companies
English & Dutch companies around 1600 were given monopolies on Indian Ocean trade, including the right to make war and to rule conquered peoples.
A pass/fee that the Portuguese required of all merchant vessels attempting to trade in the Indian Ocean.
West African kingdom that became strong through its rulers' exploitation of the slave trade.
Feudal lords of Japan who ruled with virtual independence thanks to their samurai warriors.
Native American people of northeastern North America who were heavily involved in the fur trade.
Indian Ocean commercial network
The web of commerce between lands that bordered the Indian Ocean (including E Africa, India, and SE Asia); was badly disrupted by Portuguese intrusion circa 1500.
Little Ice Age
A period of cooling temperatures and harsh winters that lasted for much of the early modern era.
Portuguese mariner who commanded the first European (Spanish) fleet to circumnavigate the globe (1519-1521).
Capital of the Spanish Philippines and a major multicultural trade city that already had a population of more than 40,000 by 1600.
Name commonly given to the journey across the Atlantic undertaken by African slaves being shipped to the Americas.
Piece of eight
Standard Spanish coin that became a medium of exchange; worth 8 reales.
City that developed in the Andes at the site of the world's largest silver mine and became the largest city in the Americas, with a population of 160,000 in 1570s.
The warrior elite of medieval Japan.
In Japan, a supreme military commander.
The flow of money from Europe to pay for the luxury products of the East.
Nickname for animal furs, highly valued for their warmth and as symbols of elite status.
An archipelago of Pacific islands colonized by Spain in a bloodless process circa 1565, tried to make people Catholic.
Military rulers of Japan who successfully unified Japan politically by the early seventeenth century and established a "closed door" policy toward European encroachments.
Trading post empire
Imperial dominance based on control of trade rather than on control of people.
Prominent Chinese philosopher, argued it's possible to achieve virtuous life by introspection without traditional Confucian education.
Major Islamic movement, advocated an austere lifestyle and strict adherence to sharia.
Pen name of French philosopher Francois-Marie Arouet, noted for deism and criticism of traditional religion.
Thirty Year's War
Destructive war including most of Europe, fight mostly between Protestants and Catholics, ended with Peace of Westphalia.
"dancing sickness", religious revival movement in Peru, preached imminent destruction of Christianity and a renewed Andean golden age.
Society of Jesus
"Jesuits", Catholic religious society, encouraged renewal of Catholicism through education and preaching, became leading Catholic missionary order beyond Europe.
Religious tradition of blended Hinduism and Islamic elements.
European intellectual and cultural transformation based on the scientific method.
Most famous Jesuit missionary in China in early modern period.
Founder of Sikhism
Schism within Christianity began with German priest Martin Luther. Movement challenged Church authority and endorsed salvation "by faith alone", but leaders claimed they wanted to reform a Church that fallen from biblical practice.
List of 95 debating points about the abuses of the church by Martin Luther, caused separation from Catholic Christianity.
English natural scientist, his laws of motion and mechanics were the peak of Scientific Revolution.
Famous Indian bhakti poet, helped break down barriers of caste and tradition.
German philosopher whose view of human history as a class struggle formed the basis of socialism.
German priest and theologian, started Protestant Reformation movement.
"Research based on evidence", Chinese intellectual movement, emphasized importance of evidence and analysis, especially to historical documents.
Jesuits in China
Series of Jesuit missionaries inspired by work of Matteo Ricci, tried to understand and become part of Chinese culture to convert Chinese elite.
The Protestant minority in France
Local gods of the Andes
Italian astronomer, further developed ideas of Copernicus, work suppressed by Catholic Church.
Austrian doctor, father of modern psychoanalysis.
European intellectual movement, applied lessons of Scientific Revolution to human affairs.
Edict of Nantes
1598 edict issued by French King Henry IV that granted considerable religious toleration to French Protestants and ended the French Wars of religion.
Belief in a divine being who created the cosmos but who does not intervene directly in human affairs.
English biologist, his theory of natural selection was a threat to revealed religious truth.
Council of Trent
Main instrument of Catholic Counter-Reformation, clarified doctrine and corrected abuses.
Polish mathematician and astronomer who was the first to argue for the existence of a heliocentric cosmos.
Condorcet and idea of progress
French philosopher/political scientist, argued that human affairs were improving because of reason.
Internal reform of Catholic Church, Council of Trent and Catholic leaders clarified doctrine and correct abuses and corruption, emphasized education and accountability.
Hindu devotional movement that flourished in the early modern era, emphasizing music, dance, poetry, and rituals as a means by which to achieve direct union with the divine.
International organization of fundamentalist Islamic militants, headed by Osama bin Laden.
Major international movement that protests the development of the global economy on the grounds that it makes the rich richer and keeps the poor regions in poverty while exploiting their labor and environments; the movement burst onto the world state in 1999 with massive protests at a meeting of the World Trade Organization in Seattle.
Bin Laden, Osama
The leader of al-Qaeda, a wealthy Saudi Arabian who turned to militant fundamentalism.
Bretton Woods System
Named for a conference held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in 1944, this system provided the foundation for postwar economic globalization, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund; based on the promotion of free trade, stable currencies, and high levels of capital investment.
Twentieth-century movement to preserve the natural world in the face of spiraling human ability to alter the world environment.
Occurring within all the major world religions, fundamentalism is a self-proclaimed return to the "fundamentals" of a religion and is marked by a militant piety and exclusivism.
term commonly used to refer to the massive growth in international economic transactions from around 1950 to the present
a worldwide scientific consensus that the increased burning of fossilnfuels and the loss of tress have begun to warm the earth's atmosphere artificially and significantly, causing climate change and leading to possibly catastrophic results if the problem is not addressed
Ernesto "Che" Guevara was an Argentine-born revolutionary (1928-1967) who waged guerilla war in an effort to remedy Latin America's and Africa's social and economic skills.
Fundamentalist Hindu movement that became politically important in India in the 1980s by advocating a distinct Hindu identity and decrying government efforts to accommodate other faith groups.
Large number of movements in Islamic lands that promote a return to strict adherence to the Quran and the sharia in opposition to key elements of Western culture.
term used by modern militant Islamic groups to denote not just the "struggle" or "striving" that the word originally meant but also the defense of authentic Islam against Western aggression.
Kyoto Protocol on Global Warming
International agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an effort to slow global warming; as of November 2007, 174 countries had subscribed to the agreement, but the United States' refusal to ratify the protocol has caused international tensions.
Christian movement that is particularly active in Latin America and that argues the need for Christians to engage in the pursuit of social justice and human rights.
An approach to the world economy, developed in the 1970s, that favored reduced tariffs, the free movement of capital, a mobile and temporary workforce, the privatization of industry, and the curtailing of government efforts to regulate the economy.
Growing disparity between the Global North and the Global South that appears to be exacerbated by world trade practices.
Military dictator of Chile from 1973 to 1990 who was known for his widespread use of torture and for liquidating thousands of opponents of his regime.
Sweeping series of reforms instituted by communist leader Alexander Dubcek in Czechoslovakia in 1968; the movement was subsequently crushed by a Soviet invasion.
The quickening of global economic transactions after World War II, which resulted in total world output returning to the levels established before the Great Depression and moving beyond them.
The fundamentalist phenomenon as it appeared in U.S. politics in the 1970s.
Women's rights movement that revived in the 1960s with a different agenda that earlier women's suffrage movements; second-wave feminists demanded equal rights for women in employment and education, women's rights to control their own bodies, and the end of patriarchal domination.
Socially Engaged Buddhism
A growing movement in Asia that addresses the needs of the poor through social reform, educational programs, and health services.
Huge global businesses that produce goods or deliver services simultaneously in many countries, often abbreviated as TNCS.
World Trade Organization
International body representing 149 nations that negotiates the rules for global commerce and is dedicated to the promotion of free trade.
Impoverished black neighborhood outside Johannesburg, South Africa, and the site of a violent uprising in 1976 in which hundreds were killed; that rebellion began a series of violent protests and strikes that helped end apartheid (racially segregated culture.)
Literally, "truth force"; Mahatma Gandhi's political philosophy, which advocated confrontational but nonviolent political action.
Pahlavi, Muhammad Reza
Born in 1919, Pahlavi was
shah of Iran from 1941 until he was deposed and fled the country in 1979
; he died in 1980.
The first prime minister of independent India (1889-1964).
The All-India Muslim League, created in 1906, was a response to the Indian National Congress in India's struggle for independence from Britain; the League's leader, Muhammad Ali Jinna, argued that regions of India with a Muslim majority should for a separate state called Pakistan.
South African nationalist
(b. 1918) and leader of the
African National Congress
imprisoned for twenty-seven years
on charges of treason, sabotage, and conspiracy
to overthrow the apartheid government of South Africa; he was elected president of South Africa in 1994
, four years after he was finally released from prison.
Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah
(advanced scholar of Islamic law and religion) who became the
leader of Iran's Islamic revolution
and ruled Iran from 1979 until his death in 1989.
Jinnah, Muhammad Ali
India's All-India Muslim League
first president of the breakaway state of Pakistan
Indian National Congress
Organization established in 1885 by Western educated elite Indians in an effort to win a voice in the governance of India; over time, the INC became a major popular movement that won India's independence from Britain.
Gandhi, Mohandas K.
Usually referred to by his soubriquet "Mahatma" (great soul), Gandhi (1869-1948) was a political leader and the undoubted spiritual leader of the Indian drive for independence from Great Britain.
A process of growth or
and the distribution of the proceeds of that growth to
raise living standards
universal desire for economic development in the second half of the twentieth century
reflected a central belief that
poverty was no longer inevitable.
Democracy in Africa
A subject of debate among scholars, the democracies established in the wake of decolonization in Africa proved to be fragile and often fell to military coups or were taken over by single-party authroitarian systems; Africa's initial rejection of democracy has sometimes been taken as a sign that Africans were not ready for democratic politics or that traditional African culture didn't support it.
Process in which many African and Asian states won their independence from Western colonial rule, in most cases by
and a program of
rather than through military confrontation.
Also known as Afrikaners, the sector of the white population of South Africa that was descended from early Dutch settlers.
South African movement that sought to foster pride, unity, and political awareness among the country's African majority and often resorted to violent protests again white minority rule.
Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal
Founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey
(1881-1938) as military commander and leader of the Turkey national movement, he
made Turkey into a secular state.
African National Congress
South African political party
established in 1912 by
elite Africans who sought to win full acceptance in colonial society
; it only gradually became a popular movement that
came to control the government in 1994.
wall constructed by East German authorities in 1961 to seal off East Berlin from the West; it was breached on November 9, 1989
Russian revolutionary party led by Vladimir Lenin and later renamed the Communist Party; its name means "the majority"
euphemistic expression for the often-forcible transformation of society when a communist regime came to power in a state
revolutionary leader of Cuba from 1959 to 2008 who gradually turned to Soviet communism and engendered some of the worst crises of the cold war
long revolutionary process in the period 1912-1949 that began with the overthrow of the Chinese imperial system and ended with the triumph of the Communist Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong
political and ideological state of near-war between the Western world and the communist world that lasted from 1946 to 1991
process of rural reform undertaken by the communist leadership of both the USSR and China in which private property rights were abolished and peasants were forced onto larger and more industrialized farms to work and share the proceeds as a community rather than as individuals
in full, "Communist International"; Soviet organization intended to control the policies and actions of other communist states
Cuban missile crisis
major standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba; the confrontation ended in compromise, with the USSR removing its missiles in exchange for the United States agreeing not to invade Cuba
a massive campaign launched by Mao Zedong in the mid-1960s to combat the capitalist tendencies that he believed reached into even the highest ranks of the Communist Party; the campaign threw China into chaos
leader of China from 1976 to 1997 whose reforms essentially dismantled the communist elements of the Chinese economy
Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of "openness," which allowed greater cultural and intellectual freedom and ended most censorship of the media; the result was a burst of awareness of the problems and corruption of the Soviet system
leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991 whose efforts to reform the USSR led to its collapse
Great Leap Forward
major Chinese initiative (1958-1960) led by Mao Zedong that was intended to promote small-scale industrialization and increase knowledge of technology; in reality, it caused a major crisis and exacerbated the impact of a devastating famine
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
Mao Zedong's great effort in the mid-1960s to weed out capitalist tendencies that he believed had developed in China
also called the Terror, these of the late 1930s were a massive attempt to cleanse the Soviet Union of supposed "enemies of the people"; nearly a million people were executed between 1936 and 1941, and 4 million or 5 million more were sentenced to forced labor in the gulag
acronym for the Soviet government agency that administered forced labor camps
the Chinese Nationalist Party led by Chiang Kai-shek from 1928 until its overthrow by the communists in 1949
leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964
adopted name of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870-1924), the main leader of Russia's communist revolution and head of the Soviet state from 1917 until his death
chairman of China's Communist Party and de facto ruler of China from 1949 until his death in 1976
wave of anticommunist fear and persecution that took place in the United States in the 1950s
national security state
form of government that arose in the United States in response to the cold war and in which defense and intelligence agencies gained great power, and power in general came to be focused in the executive branch
bold economic program launched in 1987 by Mikhail Gorbachev with the intention of freeing up Soviet industry and businesses
Russian Revolution (1917)
massive revolutionary upheaval in 1917 that overthrew the Romanov dynasty in Russia and ended with the seizure of power by communists under the leadership of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
name assumed by Joseph Vissarionovich Jugashvili (1878-1953), leader of the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death; this means "made of steel"
military alliance of the USSR and the communist states of Eastern Europe during the cold war
Women's Department of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union from 1919 to 1930; it worked strongly to promote equality for women
German term meaning "lightning war," used to describe Germany's novel military tactics in World War II, which involved the rapid movement of infantry, tanks, and airpower over large areas
European Economic Community
The EEC (also known as the Common Market) was an alliance formed by Italy, France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg in 1957 and dedicated to developing common trade policies and reduced tariffs; it gradually developed into the European Union
the final step in a series of arrangements to increase cooperation between European states in the wake of World War II.
political ideology marked by its intense nationalism and authoritarianism; its name is derived from the fasces that were the symbol of magistrates in ancient Rome
young middle-class women who emerged as a new form of social expression after World War I, flouting conventions and advocating a more open sexuality
plan of US president Woodrow Wilson to establish lasting peace at the end of World War I; although Wilson's views were popular in Europe, his vision largely failed.
German war with France (1870-1871) that ended with the defeat of France and the unification of Germany into a single state under Prussian rule
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austrian throne whose assassination by a Serbian nationalist on June 28, 1914, was the spark that ignited World War I
worldwide economic depression that began in 1929 with the New York stock market crash and continued in many areas until the outbreak of World War II
name originally given to the First World War (1914-1918)
leader of the German Nazi Party (1889-1945) and Germany's head of state from 1933 until his death
name commonly used for the Nazi genocide of Jews and other "undesirables" in German society; Jews themselves prefer the term Shoah, which means "catastrophe," rather than this term ("offering" or "sacrifice")
literally, "crystal night"; name given to the night of November 9, 1938, when Nazi-led gangs smashed and looted Jewish shops throughout Germany
League of Nations
international peacekeeping organization created after World War I; first proposed by US president Woodrow Wilson as part of his Fourteen Points
Japanese puppet state established in Manchuria in 1931
huge US government initiative to aid in the post-World War II restoration of Europe that was masterminded by US secretary of state George Marshall and put into effect in 1947
charismatic leader of the Italian fascist party (1883-1945) who came to power in 1922
Rape of Nanjing
the Japanese army's systematic killing, mutilation, and rape of the Chinese civilian population of Nanjing in 1938
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military and political alliance founded in 1949 that committed the United States to the defense of Europe in the event of Soviet aggression
Germany as ruled by Hitler and the Nazi Party from 1933 to 1945, a fascist state dedicated to extreme nationalism, territorial expansion, and the purification of the German state
properly known as the National Socialist Democratic Workers' Party, this party was founded in Germany shortly after World War I and advocated a strongly authoritarian and nationalist regime based on notions of racial superiority
a series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression
series of laws passed by the Nazi-dominated German parliament in 1935 that forbade sexual relations between Jews and other Germans and mandated that Jews identify themselves in public by wearing the Star of David
Revolutionary Right (Japan)
also known as Radical Nationalism, this was a movement in Japanese political life circa 1930-1945 that was marked by extreme nationalism, a commitment to elite leadership focused around the emperor, and dedication to foreign expansion
war that requires each country involved to mobilize its entire population in the effort to defeat the enemy
Treaty of Versailles
1919 treaty that officially ended World War I; the immense penalties it placed on Germany are regarded as one of the causes of World War II
an alliance consisting of Germany, Austria, and Italy that was one of the two rival European alliances on the eve of World War I
an alliance consisting of Russia, France, and Britain that was one of the two rival European alliances on the eve of World War I
international peacekeeping organization and forum for international opinion, established in 1945
the weak government that replaced the German imperial state at the end of World War I; its failure to take strong action against war reparations and the Great Depression provided an opportunity for the Nazi Party's rise to power
president of the United States from 1913 to 1921 who was especially noted for his idealistic approach to the end of World War l, which included advocacy of his Fourteen Points intended to regulate future international dealings and a League of Nations to enforce a new international order; although his vision largely failed, he was widely respected for his views
World War I
the "Great War" (1914-1918), in essence a European civil war with global implications that was marked by massive casualties, the expansion of offensive military technology beyond tactics and means of defense, and a great deal of disillusionment with the whole idea of "progress"
World War II in Europe** (Not included online)
a struggle essentially to halt German imperial expansion in Europe, fought by a coalition of allies that included Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States
World War II in Asia
a struggle essentially to halt Japanese imperial expansion in Asia, fought by the Japanese against primarily Chinese and American foes
the huge industrial enterprises that dominated the Japanese economy in the period leading up to World War II
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AP World History Ways of the World Chapters 1-5
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