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Anthropology Exam 2
Terms in this set (75)
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
-provides a process for museums and agencies to return certain Native American cultural items
study of how organisms decay and fossilize; changes to an organism after death
in its original place
human bones can be found as teaching materials; consent is most important
china is primary source of bones
the act of returning to the country of origin; relates to a process for returning cultural items (remains)
used when determining significance; location, how it got there, associated artifacts
remains can have coffin wear after being in long term contact
a skull which is not of significance due to its context. Typically, trophy skulls are human remains which were taken as trophies, keepsakes, or memorabilia from foreign victims during past wars. Used as decorations or sent home to loved ones
used to allow only human skeletal material for teaching, in 2016 banned home bone sales
the most important factor in modern times because of how skeletal collections were created; stealing, unclaimed bodies
the process of treating a body to keep it from decaying
Biological Resource Center
bodies donated for medical research, were cut up and sold even after families filled forms; owner plead guilty to fraud
WWII and Vietnam
troops began taking trophies of human bodies; got so out of hand it was prohibited
sharp-pointed surgical instrument fitted with a small tube for insertion into a body cavity to withdraw fluid
Why is forensic significance important?
just because human bones are found does not mean a crime was committed, ex: teaching materials
Factors for determining significance
Who can own human remains? Can you buy them?
It is legal to possess/sell, there is no federal law against only state laws decide
What FL statutes address dead bodies and unmarked human burials?
Florida Statute 872.05, third/second degree felony
A test of scientific acceptability applicable to the gathering of evidence in criminal cases.
permanent record of the fact of death, contains personal info on cause and manner of death and is necessary for "legal death"; anybody can receive a copy
saw with vibrating blade; used during autopsy; able to cut through bone without damaging surrounding soft tissue to remove brain
American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board
variable according to state and local laws
not required to be a physician
less likely to be skilled or dismissed
medical degree and specialized training
gather info and photos and assist ME with body transportation and autopsy
softening of tissue by soaking
Tarrant and Maricopa County
full time forensic anthropologists that assist in search and recovery of skeletals
are highly variable according to state and local systems; consists of law enforcement officers, forensic investigators, and ME or coroner
receive initial death notification and determine which cases fall under ME jurisdiction, investigate scenes, gather records, has a degree or experience
each county has own policy on cremating or burying
must hold for 120 days
law enforcement tries to identify and find family
taxpayers pay for outcome
a criminal investigation that has not been solved after a certain amount of time
Manner vs cause of death
manner is way in which death came about; through legal process (natural, accidental, etc)
cause is specific reason someone died (disease)
examination of the body after death usually with such dissection as will expose the vital organs for determining the cause of death
beetles that clean body of soft tissue
Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology
What are some of the challenges of the ME system?
shortage of skilled personnel
many are not board certified
uncertified failed exam doctors are employed
FL ME system
governor appoints each ME
charged with determining cause and manner
nominates physicians for positions
What is the Orlando ME district?
District 9, orange and osceola counties
What is the basic organization of a ME office?
medicolegal investigator and forensic technician
What are the duties of full-time forensic anthropologists?
assist in search and recovery of skeletal and decomposing remains, field commander for recoveries,
attend scattered/buried bodies,
Inter- vs Intraobservor error
interobserver error is different individuals
intraobserver error is the same individual but at different times
an instrument used to measure distances or diameters
standard anatomical position
person who presents evidence in court of law
forms, diagrams, charts for all items and remains received, including hair, nails, clothing, evidence
"general acceptance" standard
post-mortem interval; time since death
once bones are laid out they should be labeled and inventoried
Accuracy vs. Precision
accuracy: how closely it reflects reality of measurement
precision: how often you can repeat that measurement
when one goes up the other goes down
what took place, when it occurred, where it happened, who was involved
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
How is science used in the court room?
is the method used valid, is the data good, are the results reliable, etc.
scientific findings are directed toward reconstruction
What is the anthropologists role in the court room?
gather evidence for the court proceedings: collect remains, determine when death was, cause of trauma, produce report detailing findings
What types of information are contained in a forensic report?
background of case, evidence info, inventory, anthropological description, identification, death event
What are the steps in the initial treatment and examination of human remains in a forensic anthropology lab?
soft tissue removed
disarticulation and maceration
washed and dried bones
skeleton reassembled and labeled
What are basic facilities necessary for a working forensic anthropology laboratory?
Table, sink, outlet, cabinets, fume hood, tools, computers and printers, storage, shelves, protective clothing
a difference in secondary sexual characteristics between males and females of the same species
age, sex, ancestry, stature, inventory
Age estimation methods
long bone length,
Biological vs chronological age
biological: how the skeleton grows, matures
chronological: how much time has occurred between time of birth and death
Sex vs. Gender
sex: is genetic state based on chromosomes
gender: socio-cultural construct imposed on bodies
Race vs Ancestry
race: cultural composite of different kinds of information, only some is biological
ancestry: of one group based on appearance (skin color, hair)
used to describe persons
measurements from the cranium
minimum number of individuals
cartilaginous joint at which two pubic bones fuse together,
best for determining age in adults,
a computer program that uses statistical methods to estimate sex, ancestry, and stature from skeletal measurements
IBD and assortive mating
isolation by distance, population groups living in close geographic proximity are more similar to one another while populations groups living far apart are more dissimilar
sliding calipers: measures points that are close
spreading calipers: measures points that aren't in a straight line
osteometric board: measures large bones
mandibulometer: linear and angular measurements
tape measure: circumference of long bones
where the top or bottom of the bone fuses to the shaft of the bone,
determines age 10-25 and adults
Which bones are the best for sex identification?
pelvis, skull, mandible
Why would it be necessary to determine ancestry prior to determining the biological sex of an individual?
ancestry affects estimates of sex,
important variable to consider when determine sex cause sex estimates can be population specific
What are the most useful methods to age individuals under ~20 years?
long bone length, dental development, ossification centers, epiphyseal fusion
Why are adults more difficult to skeletally and dentally age?
based on general degeneration and dental health,
difficult to learn and estimate
How is the mathematical method for calculating stature different from the anatomical method?
mathematical: provides good estimate for incomplete skeletal remains
anatomical: provides best estimate, should be used with complete skeleton
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