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Disciplines in the category of social sciences include:
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1) The Complex Reality Beyond the University Makes Interdisciplinarity Necessary, 2)The Disciplines Are Foundational to Interdisciplinarity, 3)
The Disciplines and the Institutional Policies That Reinforce Them Often Present Major Barriers to Interdisciplinarity,
4) The Disciplines Are Inadequate to Address Complexity Comprehensively, 5) Interdisciplinarity Is Able to Integrate Insights From Relevant Disciplines
Seeing a homeless person pushing a cart filled with plastic bags of what most of us would consider junk is, tragically, a familiar sight in most cities. Disciplinary approaches to the problem of homelessness typically view it through narrow disciplinary lenses. Disciplinary experts set forth theoretical explanations of homelessness that tend to reflect their discipline's narrow perspective on reality. For example, political science typically views homelessness as a public policy issue, and psychology views it primarily as a mental health issue. But interdisciplinarity would view homelessnessAs a complex problem caused by multiple factors.The core of the integrationist position is that integrationIs generally achievable.When an environmental science program, for example, is staffed with faculty from biology, chemistry, and Earth science, the program is said to beMultidisciplinary and possibly interdisciplinary.What is an academic discipline?An identifiable but evolving domain of knowledge that its members study using certain tools that serve as a way of knowing that is powerful but constraining.What are the five sections that research articles generally have?methods, abstracts, introduction, discussion, resultswho is the INTS librariancynthia henryThat which is created between conflicting disciplinary insights assumptions, concepts, or theories and makes integration possible is calledcommon groundThe "DNA" of interdisciplinary studies refers toIts assumptions, concepts and theoriesThe natural sciences, the social sciences, the humanities, the fine and performing arts, the applied fields, and the professions areDisciplinary categories.Perspective taking increases the human tendency to negatively stereotype individuals and groupsfalseThe "social content of disciplines" refers toThe community of scholars who engage in the work of the disciplineWhich section of the paper is most likely to have a table or graph?resultsDisciplines share beliefs about how and how much we can understand about the nature of the world we live in. This is theirEpistemologyIf you wanted to study the subject of fresh water scarcity as a complex whole, you shouldConsult the relevant disciplines in the social sciences as well as those in the natural sciences.The primary and overall objective of Chapter 5 is toDiscuss the role of disciplines and their application to interdisciplinary inquiry.When a professor writes an article (a process that may take months or even years), they then submit it to an academic journal whose editors will almost always send it off to anonymous "referees" who for disciplinary research are usually scholars from the same discipline. This is called apeer reviewWhy are key words important when researching a subject?They help identify the main point of the topic under investigation.what is a literature searchA search to find literature written by scholars about the research they have done.Which of the following is not part of the purpose of the peer review process?So that other scholars get a head start on knowing what other scholars are researchingThe intellectual capacity to view a complex problem, phenomenon, or behavior from multiple perspectives, including disciplinary ones, in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of it is calledInterdisciplinary perspective taking.For most internet searching, subject areas and [x] will provide you some needed research parameters.key wordsOver time, says Welch, "the interdisciplinary idea has evolved from a mere critique of the disciplines to the more sophisticated and pragmatic mission of negotiating within and beyond the epistemological frameworks they project". The beginnings of instrumental interdisciplinarity emerged from the idea that truth is not established by authorities but is worked out through the exchange of ideas. This idea led to another idea:That progress can result from the interplay of ideas"The shadow side of these [dimensions] is the way in which a disciplines can often constrain thought—declaring some ways of knowing reasonable and others inadequate or even suspect. According to some sociologists and critical theorists, "disciplining" thought and academic practices (e.g., disciplinary course requirements) represents an exercise of coercive power and a way of reinforcing social and institutional conditions that benefit some groups and perspectives over others" (Boix Mansilla & Jackson) Boix Mansilla and Jackson are making the point thatBy compartmentalizing knowledge, disciplinary learning constrains thought.Interdisciplinarity assumes thatThe complex reality beyond the university makes its approach necessaryThe grouping of things according to their common characteristics is calleda taxonomyDisciplines in the category of natural sciences include:Math, Physics, Biology, ChemistryWhat is the purpose of a discipline?To interpret reality according to certain prescribed guidelines and provide its members with organizational support.How long does it frequently take for a manuscript to move through the process of publication from the first writing?1 yearAs a student what is a big trick to increasing the usefulness of Google Scholar?Linking it to the University Library"Over the last century there have been many lessons learned in the health field. A key lesson is that health is a complex phenomenon and the underlying causal pathways for disease and illness are more than just biological. . . . Health is a phenomenon deeply rooted within a social system, and health outcomes result from a dynamic interplay between actors across the lifetime, originating from the cellular level, to the sociopolitical level. . . . As such, efforts to improve health must consider the multifactorial nature of the problem and integrate appropriate knowledge across disciplines and levels of analysis. . . . Health research has implicated a myriad of factors involved in HIV prevention. . . Unfortunately, incidence rates continue to rise because the knowledge is not being applied in the unified manner necessary to address the complexity of the problem" (Terpstra et al., pp. 508-509). The authors are discussingThe inadequacy of the disciplines to address complex problems in the health field.[Scientists in the twenty-first century] do not lack technical expertise; they lack wisdom. We live in a world where biology enables our ability to manipulate the human genome . . . [which] is far ahead of our legal or philosophical ability to regulate how to use this knowledge in fruitful ways. . . . How do we help scientists think in an ethical context? How do we help scientists decide whether or not certain questions should be pursued? (Nikitina, 2006, p. 260) Nikitina is advocating:That scientists should integrate other disciplines from the humanities into their own disciplinary expertise to help incorporate ethics (philosophical insights) into their practices.There are 4 key strategies for integration or creating common ground. Match each of them to their definition.Redefinition. analyzing the way that key concepts are used within different insights Organization mapping the different arguments made by different authors Extension extending the analysis of one discipline (or an interdisciplinary field) so that it includes insights from other fields Transformation placing seeming opposites along a continuumAn assumption is something taken for granted, a supposition. These assumptions are accepted as the truths upon which the discipline is based. Stated another way, a discipline's defining elements—its theories, concepts, and methods—are simply the practical manifestations of its assumptions. Grasping the underlying assumptions of a discipline as a whole provides important clues to the assumptions underlying the writings of its experts on a particular problem [...] . (Repko, 2008, p. 89).Assumptions shape the discipline's theories, concepts, and methods.The concept "efficiency" has quite different meanings for economists (money out/money in), biologists (energy out/energy in), and political scientists (influence exerted/political capital expended) (Newell, 2001, p. 19). From this statement, we should deduceThat as interdisciplinarians we must often bring out common meanings, making them applicable to different texts and contexts.The Broad modelsubsumes the approaches of contextualization, conceptualization, and problem centering.One way that humanist and fine and performing art interdisciplinarians approach integration is topose philosophical or broad metaphysical questionsInterdisciplinary integration isThe cognitive process of critically evaluating disciplinary insights and creating common ground among them to construct a more comprehensive understandingContextualization involvesmaking meaning from different concepts that, on the surface, have no apparent connection or commonality.Answering the question "Why did the American Civil War break out in 1861?" involves integrating insights from science and technology (to explain the significance of the invention of the cotton gin), economics (to explain the slave-owning South's dependence on cotton production and the plantation system), religion (to explain the splits within the major Christian denominations over the issue of slavery that provided theological underpinnings for abolitionist and pro-slavery stances), literature (to explain the profound impact of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin on the North), psychology (to explain the emotional impacts of increasing incidents of violence such as John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry), and politics (to explain the rise of the Republican Party and the election of Abraham Lincoln).History as integrative contextThe problem centering approach to integration would be highly appropriate forhuman cloning, stem cell research, and organ transplantationWhat is interdisciplinary integration?Both "a" and "b" are correct.There are four limitations to the problem centering approach, name all of them:Research "tools" are narrow. Each contributing discipline's perspectives, assumptions, concepts, and favored theories might be overlooked. What Are the Supporting Arguments? No systematic process for choosing the best theories, methods, or disciplines, or for contextualization. What Evidence Does the Author Marshal? The problem is seldom mapped to reveal its complexity and causal links. The process of how integration actually occurs tends to be obscured by the drive towards a "solution".What are the four commonly used approaches to achieve integration?Contextualization, Conceptualization, Problem Centering, and The Broad ModelThere are 4 core premises underlying the term "more comprehensive understanding". Name all 4It builds on a performance view of understanding—one that privileges the capacity to use knowledge over that of having or accumulating it It builds on insights that have survived the scrutiny of expert communities using commonly agreed upon methods and validation standards. Disciplinary insights are not merely compared to each other or added together but actively inform one another, thereby leveraging understanding. It "is purposeful." Integrating disciplinary insights and modes of thinking are not ends in themselves but a means to achieve a cognitive advancement such as a new insight, a solution, an account, or an explanation.problem centeringuses issues of public debate, product development, or policy intervention as focal points for making connections between disciplines and integrating their insightsA limitation of the contextualization approach is thatit obscures the process by which integration occursVan der Lecq (2012) was able to achieve an integrated understanding of the evolution of human language capability by reconciling different usages of the word "evolution" by different authors. In some cases it may be necessary to identify different meanings of a term (Bergmann et al., 2012). This is an example ofThe redefinition strategy for integrationWhen a new product is sought, a new policy intervention, a new medical treatment or a new response to an environmental concern, a good approach would be:problem centeringWhat does it mean to have a "more comprehensive understanding"?Both "b" and "c" are correct.The problem facing the researchers was how to help farmers in the highly eroded and steep hill country of Victoria, Australia, change their farming practices in the face of deteriorating climate conditions would best benefit from aProblem-centering approach to integrationA disciplinary insight isA conclusion or conclusions in a work—both main conclusions and supporting arguments.Critical pluralism is a sophisticated epistemic positionstrueWhen considering the challenges faced by social security and Medicare as an interdisciplinary problem, you would approach this problem first by:First consider all the different components of this complex problem before thinking about which disciplinary perspectives might illumine each componentDualistsBelieve that knowledge is objective, certain, and absoluteLimitations in a disciplinary perspective mean thatthe insights of the discipline are skewed by the way each author (disciplinary expert) defines the problem, and the interdisciplinarian must acknowledge this in her or his researchWhat is critical thinking?Analysis and evaluationWhen different disciplinary perspectives conflict, we shouldUnderstand that conflict among perspectives can occur as part of the interdisciplinary research processThere are two basic types of ontology, [x] and [y].realism, relativismOne advantage that an interdisciplinary reader has over a disciplinary colleague is thatboth "a" and "b" are correct.Why does mapping interdisciplinary connections help when conducting research?a", "b", and "c" are correct.Self awarenessmeans you are aware of your own biases and you treat all arguments with the same degree of skepticismInterdisciplinarians contribute to the evolution of new fields by"b" and "c" are correct.Basic research is designed to increase knowledge about a real world phenomenon.trueEmpiricism is:Research based on observationsOne of the most common problems with disciplinary insights is that they contain jargon that makes the insight unclear. In this case, it might be helpfullook the word up in a key reference work of that disciplineperspective takingBoth "a" and "b" are correctWhich of the following statements on interdisciplinarity are accurate?All of the statements are accurate.When you challenge your own beliefs and worldviewit can lead to uncertainty and takes intellectual courageThere are 4 key questions you should ask when reading disciplinary work. Which of the following is NOT a question that you should ask.What Are the Author's Assumptions?When someone completely disagrees with your point of view on somethingYou should recognize there is probably a kernel of truth in what she or he is saying, and recognize this as an opportunity to identify common ground.The fact that the environment is a complex system where the factors addressed by one discipline are affected by factors addressed by other disciplines means thatBoth "a" and "b" are correctAre there differences between disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to critical reading and thinking?yesOne reason interdisciplinarians are interested in viewing a topic from multiple perspectives is that perspective taking enables us to see the ___________ of other perspectivesRelevanceWhich of the following statements about disciplinary perspective is correct?Interdisciplinarians need to know the strengths and weaknesses of different disciplinary perspectives and this may only become apparent when the perspectives are juxtaposed.Interdisciplinarians are interested in viewing the topic from the perspectives of potentially relevant disciplines for six reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons?Perspective Taking Encourages us to see Multiple PerspectivesOntology isOur belief about realityDualism and relativism are simplistic epistemic positionstrueRelativists do not believe:That their findings are generalizableWhen conducting an interdisciplinary analysis of a poem such as "Refugee Blues', by W.H. Auden (this is a poem about the plight of those seeking asylum before and during WW2) we shouldConsider English Literature combined with perspectives from History, Geography, Political Science, and Psychology.When the results of a study are generalizable it means they are:Applicable to a large populationKnowing the strengths and weaknesses of a disciplinary perspective means that you canUnderstand that different complex problems will need different perspectives, and that each disciplinary perspective is only a partial illumination of the problem.What is interdisciplinary critical thinking?Interdisciplinary critical thinking includes critical thinking but also it requires awareness of the limitations of expertise, self-awareness, intellectual courage, and respect for different viewpoints.There are set of 4 critical thinking questions you should ask of every scholarly work that you read. In addition, there are 6 types of statements used in disciplinary work. List the 6 types in order.statements of motivation, statements of belief, guiding questions, Definitions of key concepts, statements of evidence or information , implicationsIf after mapping the phenomenon associated with a complex problem to reveal its disciplinary parts you see that two of the disciplines disagree on an aspect of your complex problem, you shouldAsk yourself whether the disciplines are actually studying different aspects of the phenomenon.Experimental methods are an example ofA realist ontology and an etic epistemologyJargon is commonly used in most disciplines to explain research findings.TrueMultiplicity is a key feature of interdisciplinary studies when working with conflicting insights coming out of different disciplinary perspectives. It means that youexperience several plausible yet contradictory explanations of the same phenomenon as opposed to one simple, clear-cut, unambiguous explanationRelativistsbelieve that there is no such thing as objective knowledge and view beliefs, theories, and values as inherently relative, contingent, and contextualPhenomenology is a type of researchDesigned to understand someone's lived experienceAwareness of the limitations of expertise means thatyou know that just because something is published in a peer-reviewed journal or book, the author is neither all knowing nor free from biasWhich of the following statements accurately expresses this book's position on interdisciplinarity, particularly in its instrumental form?It is not a rejection of the disciplines but is firmly rooted in them and offers a corrective to their dominance.This interdisciplinary theory states that interdisciplinary study is necessitated when the phenomenon is multifaceted and functions as a "system:"Complexity theory.Disciplinary perspectivesAre integrated in interdisciplinary researchThe abstract is the first paragraph of the introduction to a research article.falseWhich of the following expresses the epistemology of the humanities?Knowledge is interpretive, critical, inherent to the object or text, and represents values that may be shared or individually held.The epistemologies of the natural sciences make scientific approaches inadequate for addressing these kind of issuesvalue issuesComplexity has become the cornerstone of interdisciplinarity because itApproaches knowledge as open-ended and ill-defined, acknowledging its dependence on context, and focusing on relationships between [system] elementsInterdisciplinarity views homelessness asA complex problemThe Literature review will be found in which section of the paper?introductionBecause different disciplines will have relevant perspectives on complex problems and these perspectives will reflect the discipline's perspectiveIt is important to consider the perspectives of the different disciplines to ensure you have considered how it illumines different parts of the problemresearchers of subscribe to the idea that there is one truth that can be found are:realistsIf you find yourself confronted by a disciplinary insight that is unclear, you shouldAsk yourself why there is a lack of clarity in the insight.Interdisciplinarians stress the importance of breadth of vision, broad context, and systemic thinking. By contrast, disciplinariansemphasize the need to have a deep understanding of a particular subject matter, which we have called "disciplinary reductionismA sophisticated epistemic position is necessary when engaged in interdisciplinary research becauseThe multiple disciplinary insights consulted cannot be assessed as simply "true" or "false" but rather incomplete views on the complex problem being considered.In "The Fable of the Blind Men and the Elephant" .The men are disciplinary reductivistsScience isA process for obtaining and organizing knowledgeLimitations in a disciplinary perspective mean thatthe insights of the discipline are skewed by the way each author (disciplinary expert) defines the problem, and the interdisciplinarian must acknowledge this in her or his researchApplied research is designed to increase knowledge about the lived experiences of the participant.falseTo interrogate in an interdisciplinary sense means topractice critical pluralism by asking critical and probing questions of each relevant disciplineRealism and relativism are two types of:ontologycritical pluralistsaccept the pluralism of relativism without drawing the relativist conclusion that "anything goesDisciplinary bias, disciplinary jargon, and personal biasAre the three tendencies that run counter to the interdisciplinary processA study of the institution of Jewish marriage and its place in Israel's conflicted identity may generate insights that can be applied to broader issues of inequality such as the situation of Israeli Arabs, a sizable minority who face issues in some ways analogous to those of non-Orthodox Jews and other non-Jews in Israel. An interdisciplinary approach to the institution of Jewish marriage is necessary because no single discipline is able to provide a comprehensive understanding of its complex and emblematic role in Israeli democracy. The interdisciplinary research process offers the most effective way to consider each contributing discipline's perspective, find common ground between conflicting insights, integrate these insights, and apply the resulting understanding to broader issues in Israel as a Jewish and democratic state.both "a" and "b" are correctConsider the following problem: "What is the meaning of the growing popularity of action super heroes in media?" What disciplines are potentially relevant to this examination based on the phenomena they study?philosophy, anthropology (particularly the subdiscipline of cultural anthropology), and history.You identify Environmental Studies as a relevant discipline in your examination of the complex problem of climate change. Since this is an interdisciplinary field, you shouldConsult journals associated with Environment Studies as interdisciplinary fields have their own journals and scholarly organizations.What are the differences between disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to research?Both "a" and "b" are correct.What are the first four steps in the Broad Model?Identify a problem or define a research question; Justify an interdisciplinary response; Identify relevant disciplines; Complete a literature reviewWhy is it helpful to develop a data management system for your Literature Review?All the above are correctA concept such as "respiration in cats" would beInappropriate for interdisciplinary study because the discipline of biology is sufficient to address the problem.In an examination of domestic violence, you find only one article on the problem from a psychological perspective, but many from sociology. You should assume from this discovery that:The one article produced by psychology on the problem may contain information of such significance that an interdisciplinary understanding of the problem that is truly comprehensive would not be possible without it.What is research?The process of gathering information to understand how some aspect of the natural or human world functions,Why is research important?Both "b" and "c" are correct.Some of the hallmarks of a good interdisciplinary research question are:"b" and "c" are correct.What is Step 4 of the Broad Model ?Conduct a Literature SearchIf you find it difficult to locate disciplinary insights when conducting a literature review, you shouldConsider using different search terms as the terminology may be different among disciplines.In Step 2 of the Broad Model, you would justify using an interdisciplinary response byNone of these responses are correctGrizzly bear (Ursus arctos) management in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) is one particularly high-profile case. Threats to grizzly bears may be defined in terms of habitat and population fragmentation and the biological measures needed to maintain or restore populations (e.g., Knight et al., 1999). However, they may also be understood as an interdisciplinary management problem, realizing that the conservation of grizzly bears and their ecosystem are only partly a technical problem and largely an outcome of complex human social dynamics—a policy process. Understanding this policy process and making it more effective is the key to achieving effective grizzly bear and ecosystem conservation. This paper first offers a brief overview of the policy process. Second, it examines three basic interdisciplinary problem solving elements or perspectives that can be applied to species and ecosystem conservation."a" and "c" are correctWhat research method is preferred by interdisciplinarians?The Broad modelWhen considering the complex problem of teen apathy toward learning, you identify possible research domains of education and psychology because these disciplines study phenomena relevant to your topic. These two disciplines arePotentially relevant.The Broad Model has ___ steps6 stepsDomestic violence is a problem that would be suitable for interdisciplinary investigation because"a" and "b" are correct.STEP 3 begins with identifying disciplines that are potentially relevant to the problem and ends with. identifying a few disciplines that are the most relevantThe Broad Model is effective as a research method because:All these answers are correct.Teen apathy toward learning diagramRaise questions about the problem that may not have been previously apparent by considering both internal and external factors.When conducting a Literature Review, it is important to pay attention to the disciplinary source of insights becauseThis information will be important when analyzing the insights in Step 5.Globalization is spreading Western culture throughout the world and overwhelming or replacing more traditional cultures. To understand how this is happening, it is necessary to use an interdisciplinary approach [because] no single discipline can explain this complex process. How would you revise the paragraph so that it addresses all the requirements of an effective interdisciplinary research question?Add a sentence that explains important insights into the problem are offered by two or more disciplinesA discipline is potentially relevant if the problem falls within its research domain but it is not known whether the discipline's experts have written about the problem. If they have not (and the literature search will reveal this), then the discipline is not relevant (although more advanced researchers might still consider such a discipline). If the discipline's experts have produced one or more insights into the problem, then the discipline is relevant. This description accurately describes what you are trying to determine in:Step 3 - Identify Relevant DisciplinesSome "rules of thumb" to help you perform Step 3 are:All these answers are correct.Considering the complex problem of whether natural gas should replace coal as a fuel source for electricity production, you identify environmental and public policy issues and connect it to the disciplines of Earth science and biology because they focus on the environment, and political science because it focuses on the process of passing environmental legislation and enforcing regulations. The disciplines of Earth science, biology, and political science arePotentially relevantHow do you develop a good research question?All of the above are correct.Skimming the disciplinary literature may guide you to narrow the focus of your research question. This is an action that should be performed as part ofStep 3 - Identify Relevant DisciplinesWhen conducting a literature review,You are looking for insights related to your research topic from different disciplinary perspectives.An issue such as "terrorism" would be"a" and "b" are correct.A sentence in your interdisciplinary research that includes a phrase such as "This study to answer this question in order that (or so that) . . ."Suggests that you are addressing the "so what" part of Step 1 of the Broad Model.Globalization is spreading Western culture throughout the world and overwhelming or replacing more traditional cultures. To understand how this is happening, it is necessary to use an interdisciplinary approach [because] no single discipline can explain this complex process. From this extract we can infer that:the problem is complex but the author does not state that insights are offered by more than one discipline.Performing STEP 3 involves taking four actions. Select the four actions.Connect the Problem as a Whole to Phenomena Typically Studied by Disciplines and Interdisciplinary Fields "Decompose" the Problem Reflect on the Problem Externalize the ProblemThere are three proven strategies for critically analyzing disciplinary insights and locating their sources of conflict. Identify the key elements of each insights is one of the three strategies.truePossessing disciplinary adequacy is havingWhat you need to know about an unfamiliar discipline in order to draw upon its insights and critically analyze them.Complex Problem: "Should schools adopt computer-assisted education for young children?" Article Summaries Article 1: Psychology (Learning Theory). The National Research Council (NRC) is the research arm of the National Academy of Sciences, a private, nonprofit scholarly society that advises the federal government in scientific and technical matters. Its study "How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School" argues that computer-assisted education can enhance learning (Bradsford, Brown, & Cocking, 1999). The supportive evidence used by the NRC includes references to state-of-the art learning software and several experimental projects such as GLOBE, which gathered data from students in over 2,000 schools in 34 countries (Bradsford et al., 1999). Article 2: Education. The Alliance for Childhood, a partnership of individuals and organizations, issued a report, "Fool's Gold: A Critical Look at Computers in Childhood", that subsequently appeared in a leading education journal. The report argues that computer assisted education does not benefit young children. This view, a matter of heated debate within the profession, was nevertheless included in the Education Department's own 1999 study of nine troubled schools in high poverty areas, as well as extensive references to studies by leading education experts, including Stanford Professor (Education) Larry Cuban, theorist John Dewey, Austrian innovator Rudolf Steiner, and MIT Professor Sherry Turkel (Alliance for Childhood, 1999). These insights demonstrate how: disciplines or profession amass and present evidence that reflects its preferred research methodology and the kind of evidence that it considers reliable experts omit evidence that they consider outside the scope of their discipline or profession. "Facts," then, are not always what they appear to be. They reflect only what the discipline and its community of experts are interested in. it is easy to be seduced by the data when you happen to agree with the author's position on the issue. you must be aware of an author's discipline, analyze carefully the kind of evidence the author privileges, and know how the author uses that evidence. Which of the statements above may be inferred from the article summaries above informed by your reading of CH12 ?All the statements are correct.When attempting to identify the author's disciplinary affiliation, you shouldResearch the author's name and institution to try to find a research agenda or C.V. (academic resume) as this may mention the author's qualificationsFrom the following table, it is possible to deduce that. 12.1 tableThe student is investigating terrorism, and is beginning STEP 5 of the Broad Model.Consider the following: "A key guiding principle of interdisciplinary analysis is that no piece of scholarly research is perfect. If we accept that no scholarly method can guide a researcher flawlessly towards insight, then it follows that scholarly results may reflect researcher biases. This does not mean that results reflect only such biases, as some in the field of science studies have claimed. But it does mean that one way of evaluating the insights generated by research is to interrogate researcher bias" (Szostak, 2009, p. 331). From this we can infer the following about scholarly research: 1. No scholarly research is perfect because it is skewed by predispositions and biases. 2. Research is a matter of mere opinion or flawed approach. 3. All researchers, including interdisciplinary researchers, should be transparent in their biases. 4. Researcher bias should be included in the criteria we use to evaluate our own work, as well as the work of others.Statements 1, 3, and 4 are correctConsidering the following table, we may deduce that:Psychology is the first insight captured on the table that we can see.Evidence is mounting that traditional ways of knowing, of generating knowledge, and of framing public discourse about the great issues of our time are no longer adequate. Interdisciplinarity is an idea whose time has come. This statement suggests that:Interdisciplinary approaches are applicable beyond the classroom.In critically analyzing insights, we are interested inidentifying the key elements of each insight so that we can locate points of conflict between them.If you can understand the perspective of each relevant discipline; read the insights; identify the theory on which the insight is based, and identify the appropriateness of the method the author uses, you are demonstrating:Disciplinary AdequacySaying that the factual information presented by disciplines may be "skewed" means thatDisciplines often omit certain kinds of facts and data because they are interested in certain kinds of questions and amass data to answer these questions."Critically Analyze the Disciplinary Insights Into the Problem"Is Step 5 of the Broad Model.There are 9 key elements that you should be looking for as you read each insight in STEP 5. Select all 9 elementsThe author's disciplinary affiliation. Key concepts and their meanings The author's bias (ethical or ideological) The author's insights, thesis, or argument The author's research method (which reflects the method favored by the author's discipline) The author's epistemological position The theory advanced by the author and grounded in research that explains the data collected The phenomena addressed and the relationship of parts to whole (information invaluable for mapping the problem) The author's assumption(s) concerning the problemBeing critical of expert evidence meansbeing aware that the factual information presented by the author may be "skewed" and understanding the implications of this bias.