Upgrade to remove ads
Ch. 7, Carl Rogers, Rogerian Therapy
Terms in this set (22)
View of human nature
As a child interacts with others, Rogers stated that he or she engages in what is called an "organismic valuing process", which means that generally, individuals move toward those experiences or interactions that are positive to the actualizing process and away from those that are negative. However, Rogers also believed that, as a "self" emerges, an individual develops a "need for positive regard". Sometimes, said Rogers, this need was more compelling than the push toward a positive actualizing experience. So, if a significant other gives the individual the message that he or she would only be loved if certain qualities are shown, and if these qualities are antithetical to the actualizing process, the individual will forego the actualizing process and act in accordance with the wishes of the significant other. Rogers believed that when these "conditions of worth" are placed on a person, they thwart the natural growth process and result int he development of a "non-genuine" or "incongruent" way of living in the world.
Process of Defense
Rogers believed that individuals sometimes do not perceive conditions of worth being placed on them or the resulting incongruence, and he posited that individuals develop a "process of defense" in which they selectively perceive situations, distort situations, or deny threats to self in an effort to protect themselves from a sate of anxiety that is the result of this incongruence. Anxiety and related symptoms can be conceptualized as a signal to the individual that he or she is acting in a non-genuine way and not living fully.
Rogers believed that every individual is born with an actualizing tendency that motivates the person to reach his or her full potential if the individual is placed in an environment that supports this inherent process. This basic biological principal has its corollary in all living things. Ex. The flower that delightfully blooms if placed in optimum environmental circumstances, but wilts if not.
Need for Positive Regard
In their development of self, children have a need for positive regard by significant others; that is, to feel loved, supported, and appreciated by those close to them. Children will manifest behaviors they believe those close to them would want them to exhibit in hopes that they will be positively regarded by them, even if those behaviors are antithetical to the individual's natural way of being.
Conditions of Worth
Closely related to the need to be positively regarded are conditions of worth that occur when significant others, who have the power to withhold their love and regard, place expectations on a person's way of responding. In this case, significant others are expecting an individual to respond in a certain manner, even if that type of response is not how the person wishes to respond. Love, or the promise of love, is withdrawn if the person does not respond in that manner, and love is given if the person does respond in that manner. Over time, the person learns to respond in the manner in which the significant other want him or her to respond, even if that response is not natural or true to self.
Non-genuineness, sometimes called incongruence, is a product of conditions of worth being placed on the individual, as the individual acts in ways that do not match his or her natural state of being. The individual who is non-genuine is not in touch with some, or even a majority of his or her feelings.
Organismic Valuing Process
The process of drifting towards people who positively value one's natural tendencies or ways of being, or drifting away from those who negatively value them, is called the organismic valuing process. The validation of a person's inherent or natural ways of living in the world leads to a positive self-image. However, when the conditions of worth are placed on an individual, the individual's organismic valuing process is thwarted as the individual acts falsely, or in non-genuine ways, to gain the love of another.
Free Will and Choices
As a phenomenologically based, existential theorist, Rogers believed that people have free will to make choices based other subjective view of reality. Individuals are victims of their own past, especially when they are living lives based false, incongruent, sense of self. In these cases, decisions are grounded in an individual's defenses and distortions, and often result in unhealthy choices.
Locus of control
In person-centered counseling, self-determination is the process of looking within to make choices about oneself, as opposed to allowing others to direct one's life. Incongruent clients will be out of touch with who they are and make poor choices for themselves or look for answers outside of themselves. Such clients are sometimes sad to have external locus of control. Rogers stressed the importance of creating an environment that will allow clients to be more in touch with themselves, and ultimately, make choices from an inner sense of who they are, and less from the advice of others. In this process, clients move from dependency to autonomy as they gain greater internal locus of control, or a sense that their destiny is in their own hands.
Rogers believed the ingredients for self-discovery lie within each person and encouraged counselors and therapists to offer a counseling environment facilitative of self-discovery, as opposed to one that was directive, advising, and interpretative. By counselors providing a non-directive counseling stance through the use of empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive regard, he suggested that clients would feel free to look inside themselves, discover their inner world, become increasingly in touch with their true selves, and make self-initiated positive and growth producing choices.
Rogers believed that personality change would occur if the therapeutic framework included six necessary and sufficient conditions:
1) Two persons are in psychological contact.
2) The first, whom we shall term the client, is in a state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious.
3) The second person, whom we shall term the therapist, is congruent or integrated in the relationship.
4) The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard for the client.
5) The therapist experiences an empathetic understanding of the client's internal frame of reference and endeavors to communicate this experience to the client.
6) The communication to the client of the therapist's empathetic understanding and unconditional positive regard is to a minimal degree achieved.
being real within the context of the therapeutic relationship was the most important of the therapeutic qualities, as a relationship has no meaning if the counselor hides behind a mask, unwilling to risk being herself. Finding the balance between the counselor's awareness of his or her own feelings and the expression of those feelings in an effort to be real is one of the challenges facing the person-centered therapist.
unconditional positive regard
the client will begin to see how he or she is living out a false life as the result of past conditions of worth that were placed upon him or her/ although Rogers states that unconditional positive regard should be present for the totality of a session, he admits that this is the ideal and suggests that all therapists must continually strive to achieve this state of being.
such understanding can be shown in a number of ways, including accurately reflecting the meaning and affect of what the client expressed; using a metaphor, analogy, image, or self-disclosure to show the client that he or she is accurately heard; simply nodding one's head or gently touching the client during the client's deepest moments of pain.
Reflection of feelings
Roger's explanation of empathic listening has been interpreted and often packaged into what many of us now call reflection of feeling, or parroting what the client said. Rogers stated that he never meant the counselor to mimic what the client had said, but rather to use all possible avenues to show the client that the counselor understood his or her way of making meaning out of the world.
Rogers noted that some of the best empathetic responses to a client are those in which the therapist is able to subceive feelings beyond those of which the client is aware. As opposed to interpreting feelings that the therapist thinks the client might be having, subceiving feelings means that the therapist is sensing deep feelings from the client, feelings of which the client may not be aware of.
became a mainstay of counselor training during the 1970s and 1980s; and although it is no longer used as extensively, the scales set the stage for micro counseling skills training methods in counseling programs. The scale ranges rom a low of 1.0 to a high of 5.0, with .5 increments. Any responses below a 3.0 were considered "subtractive" or non-empathetic, while responses fo 3.0 or higher were considered empathetic, with responses over 3.0 called "additive" responses.
Carkhuff Accurate Empathy Scale
dramatically changed the education of helping professionals, as professors, students, and helpers could assess one another's ability to make an empathetic response. Level 1 responses being way off the mark and Level 2 only slightly off. Level 3 responses accurately reflect the affect and meaning of the client. Level 4 and Level 5 responses reflect feelings and meaning beyond what the person is outwardly saying and adds to the meaning of the person's outward expression.
Formula and Natural Responses
when first practicing empathetic responding, it is suggested that beginning counselors begin by making what's called a formula response, which generally states with reflection of feeling followed by the paraphrasing of content. As beginning helpers become more comfortable with the formula response, they move to what some call a natural response, which embodies all the components in the formula response (reflection of feeling and content) but does so in a manner that is natural to the helper.
Advanced, creative, and novel approaches to empathetic responding:
as therapists become more adept at making natural responses, they may begin to use what are called advanced, creative, and novel approaches to empathetic responding, that include such responses as 1) reflecting non-verbal behaviors, 2) reflecting deeper feelings, 3) pointing out conflicting feelings and thoughts, 4) using visual imagery, 5) using analogies, 6) using metaphors, 7) using targeted self-disclosure, 8) reflecting media, 9) using tactile responses, and 10) discursive empathy (reflecting culture and historical factors that maybe impact a person).
Social, cultural, and spiritual issues
When a client is from a culture that extols external advice and eschews an internal locus of control (religious scripture and parental dictates are more important than the self in one's decision-making process). When therapy needs to be brief and focused. When being in touch with feelings if frowned upon within the client's culture. When the presenting problem does not lend itself to the person-centered approach. When the counselor's cognitive complexity is not evolved. When the cultural competence of the counselor is lacking.
Religion and spirituality are seen by most person-centered counselors as one of many values and beliefs to which a client might embrace, struggle with, and churn over. The effective person-centered counselor would allow any individual, whether he Is Muslin, Christian, Jew, Hindu, atheist, or agnostic, to struggle over his or her own meaning of religion and spirituality and would allow that person to come to his or her conclusion as to what it means in his or her life (Frankl vibes). The person-centered counselor believes that a person who has found inner peace can help spread global peace (Adlerian undertones).
Efficacy of Person-centered therapy
client-centered counseling had success at reducing the gap between how clients actually saw themselves (their self-concept) and how they wanted to be (their ideal self-concept). The most important quality for positive therapeutic outcomes is the therapeutic alliance, or the ability for the counselor to connect with the client.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Counseling Theories ch. 1-2 (Intro and Freud)
Ch. 3 Carl Jung "Analytical Therapy"
Ch. 4 Adlerian Therapy
Ch. 5 Viktor Frankl Existential Therpay
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Quizzes and Kahoot for THEORIES
Ch. 6 Gestalt Therapy, Fritz Perls
Sleep part 2
S.P. Ch. 5