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What are the unpaired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta?
celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery.
What are the paired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta?
middle suprarenal artery., renal artery., ovarian/testicular artery.
What are the paired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta contained in the parietal peritoneum?
Inferior phrenic artery, Lumbar artery (4 pairs)
What are the unpaired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta contained in the parietal peritoneum?
Median Sacral Artery
What are the three immediate branches of the Celiac Trunk?
left gastric artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery.
The three branches of the Celiac trunk further branch and supply what organs?
Stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, and pancreas
What arteries constitute the stomachs arterial supply and arise from the celiac trunk?
Left and right gastric arteries (branches of the celiac and heptatic artery)
The left and right gastroepiploic arteries (branches of the splenic artery and the gastroduodenal artery).
The short gastric arteries (branches of the splenic artery)
What vessels run along the greater curvature of the stomach?
Right and Left gastroepoploic arteries.
Why is the liver said to be functionally independent?
Right and left lobes have their own arterial, portal supply, along with separate venous drainage
What does the round ligament represent in utero?
The represents the remnant of the left fetal umbilical vein
What is notable about the French system of the liver?
hepatic segments are based on the branching of the portal vein. One way to identify the liver segments is by starting at the caudate lobe in counting in a counter-clock-wise direction (8 lobes)
What is the coronary ligament?
A peritoneal reflection on the superior part of the liver that "crowns" the liver and attaches to the diaphragm
What is the bare area of the liver?
area which is not covered by peritoneum, so the liver is in direct contact with the diaphragm
What is the porta hepatis and where is it located (not contents)?
It is a transverse fissure on the visceral surface of the liver
What are the parts of the lesser omentum
Which has 2 parts the hepatogastric ligament and the hepatoduodenal ligament
Can you describe the path of arterial blood flow from the aorta to the liver?
The common hepatic artery arises from the celiac trunk and becomes the proper hepatic artery (around where the gastroduodenal artery can starts its journey).
The hepatic artery proper divides into the right and left branches shortly before entering the porta hepatis
What is the general function of the portal vein?
It collects blood from the G.I. tract, gallbladder, pancreases, and spleen and brings it to the liver
What does the inferior mesenteric vein join?
It joins the splenic vein before the latter unites with the superior mesenteric
What is the venous drainage of the liver?
The hepatic veins drain directly into the inferior vena cava just inferior to the diaphragm!
State the artery that supplies the gallbladder and what it branches off from?
The cystic artery which is usually a branch of the right hepatic artery, however there is lots of variability
What are the folds in the mucous membrane of the cystic duct called?
The spiral valves of "Heister" (impacted gallstones often lodge in the area)
Name the 2 muscular sphincters in the distal biliary tract?
The choledochal sphincter (located at the distal end of the bile duct) and the hepatopancreatic sphincters (located at the hepatopancreatic ampulla)
Describe the spleen.
largest lymphoid organ of body located in left hypochondriac region, between stomach and diaphragm. entirely sheltered by lower ribs
What is an accessory spleen?
Heterotopic splenic tissue found near the hilum (seen in about 20% of the population)
Describe the spleens venous drainage?
Venous drainage of the spleen is by the splenic vein which joins with the superior mesenteric vein posterior to the Pancrease to form the portal vein
Which 5 abdominal structures are normally in contact with the spleen?
Stomach, left kidney, pancreas, colon, diaphragm
What are the two ligaments that the lesser omentum is composed?
Hepato-duodenal liganment and hepato-gastric ligament.
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