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Mr Daigle Bio 211 (A&P 2) CCTC Spring 2011

lymphatic system

body sys. responsible for adaptive immunity

the lyphatic sys is made up of

lymph vessels structures and organs that cont. lymphatic tissues and red bone marrow

it is lymph

when interstitial fluid passes into lymphatic vessels

lymph and interstitial fluid relation

chemically similar to blood plasma

interstitial fluid

components of blood plasma filter through blood capillary walls to form this


is a type of WBC in the vertebrae immune system

functions of lyphocytes

drain interstitial fluid transport dietary lipids and protects with immune responses

depth of immune responses

protects the body against invasion

depth of trasportation of dietary lipids

transports lipids and lipids soluble vitamins from the g.i tract to the blood

depth in draining of interstitial fluid

lymphatic sys drains tissue spaces of excess fluid and returns proteins that have escaped from blood to the cardiovascular system

lymphatic vessels begin as what

lymphatic capillaries

lymphatic capillaries merge to form larger

lymphatic vessels

where does the lymphatic vessels drain

the thoracic duct (main) or right lymphatic duct

what are located in intervals along lyphatic vessels

lymph nodes

thoracic duct drains into

left subclavian vein

Rt. lymphatic duct drains into

Rt. subclavian vein

lymph nodes consist of

masses of b cells and t cells surronded by a capsule

lymphatic organs

thymus lymphatic nodes spleen lymph nodules and bone marrow

passage of lymph

from interstitial fluid to lymphatic capillaries to lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes to the thoracic duct to rt. subclavian vein to the junction of the internal jugular and subclavien veins

valves of the lymphatic system prevent what

backflow of lymph

how does lymph flow

due to the "milking action" action of skeletal muscle contraction and pressure changes that occur during inhalation

skeletal musc. forces lymph where

towards the subclavian veins

afferent lymphatic vess.

filtered lymph enters a node through this

efferent lymphatic vess.

filtered lymph leaves the other end of the node through one or two of this

two lobed organ located posterior to ths sternum and medial to the lungs and superior to the heart


largest single mass of lymphatic tissue in the body


spleen is made from

capsule of dense conn. tiss.

stem cells in red bone marrow give rise to

mature B cells and immature T cells

mature B cells and immature T cell migrate where

to the thymus

primary lymphatic organs and tissues are the sites where stem cells divide and develp what

mature B and T cells

what organs are included when B andT cells are mature

red bone marrow and the thymus

sites where most immune responses occur

secondary lymphatic organs and tiss.

the immune responses occur in what organs

lymph nodes spleen and and lmphatic nodules

lymphatic nodules description

oval shaped concentrations of lymphatic tiss. that are not surronded by a capsule

in what organs are the lymphatice nodules scattered in

the gi respiratory urinary and reproductive tracts

tonsils function

to participate in immune responses agains inhaled or ingested foreign substances

names of tonsils

pharyngeal palatine and ligual

pharyngeal tonsil

embedded in the posterior wall of the upper part of the throat

palatine tonsil

lie at the back of the throat on either side (commonly removed in tonsillectomy)

lingual tonsil

located at the base of the tongue can be removed during tonsellectomy

innate immune defenses include (outer)

barriers provided by the skin and mucous membranes (first line of defens)

innate immune defenses include (inner)

internal antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes and natural killer cells, inflammation and fever

inflammatory response

is the defensive response to tissue damage

sign of infammation

redness, pain heat and swelling

fever occurs

when many bacterial toxins elevate body temp by triggering release of fever causing substances

fever causing substnces

macrophages and interleukin-1

define antingen

any subsance that the adaptive immune system recognizes as foreign

adaptive immunity involves in the production of what

spefic types of cells or antibodies to destroy a particular antigen

B cells complete their development where

in red bone marrow

mature T cells develope where

in the thymus from where immature t cells that migrated from the bone marrow

responsible for cellular immunity

T cells

sub population for T cells

cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells and memory T cells

cell mediated immunity

is effective against fungi, parasite, intracellular viral infections, cancer cells, and foreign tiss. transplants


antigen presenting cells

what is the function of (APCs)

the process the antigen to activate t cells and secrete substance to dvide t cells and b cells

anti body mediated immunity is most effective against what

viral and bacterial infections

antibody mediated immunity is produced by

descendants of b cells called plasma cells

destruction of antigens by antibodies

is referring to antibody mediated immunity

What are Lymph vessels?

One way system, lymph flows toward the heart.

What do Lymph vessels (lymphatics) include?

Lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic collecting vessels, lymphatic trunks and ducts.

What are Lymphatic Capillaries?

Similar to blood capillaries, with modifications: Very permeable, loosely joined endothelial minivalves.

Where are Lymphatic Capillaries absent?

Bones, teeth, bone marrow and the CNS.

What are Minivalves?

Function as one way gates that allow interstitial fluid to enter lymph capillaries, do not allow lymph to escape from the capillaries.

What do Lymph Capillaries absorb during inflammation?

Cell debris, pathogens, cancer cells.

What do the cells in the lymph nodes do?

Cleanse and examine.

What are Lacteals?

Specialized lymph capillaries present in intestinal mucosa. Absorb digested fat and deliver fatty lymph (chyle) to the blood.

What are Lymphatic Collecting Vessels?

Have the same three tunics as veins, have thinner walls, with more internal valves, anastomose more frequently.

What are Lymphatic Trunks?

Formed by the union of the largest collecting ducts.

What is the Right Lymphatic Duct?

Drains the right upper arm and the right side of the head and thorax.

What is the Thoracic Duct?

Arises from the cisterna chyli and drains the rest of the body.

Where do both Lymphatic ducts empty lymph into?

Venous circulation at the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins on its own side of the body.

What are the Lymphoid Cells?


What are the two main varieties of Lymphocytes?

T Cells (T lymphocytes), B Cells (B lymphocytes).

What do T cells and B cells do?

Protect the body against antigens.

What is an Antigen?

Anything the body perceieves as foreign. Bacteria and their toxins, viruses, mismatched RBC's, cancer cells.

What do T cells do?

Manage the immune response, attack and destroy foreign cells.

What do B cells do?

Produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies. Antibodies imonbilize antigens.

What are Lymph Nodes?

Principal lymphoid organs of the body. Embedded in connective tissue and clustered along lymphatic vessels.

Where do Aggregations of Lymph nodes occur?

Near the body surface in inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions of the body.

What are the two basic functions of Lymph nodes?

Filtration and immune system activation.

What is Filtration?

Macrophages destroy microorganisms and debris.

What is Immune System Activation?

Monitor for antigens and mount an attack against them.

What is the structure of a Lymph Node?

Bean shaped and surrounded by a fibrous capsule.

What are the distinct histologically regions of Lymph Nodes?

Cortex and a medulla.

What is the circulation in the Lymph Nodes?

Only lymph nodes filter lymph. Lymph enters via afferent lymphatic vessels. It meanders through these sinuses and exits the node at the hilus via efferent vessels. Because there are fewer efferent vessels, lymph stagnates somewhat in the node. This allows lymphocytes and macrophages time to carry out protective functions.

What is the Spleen?

Largest lymphoid organ, located on the left side of the abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragm. It is served by the splenic artery and vein, which enter and exit at the hilus.

What are the functions of the Spleen?

Site of lymphocyte proliferation, immune surveillance and response, cleanses the blood. Stores breakdown products of RBC's for later reuse. Stores blood platelets. Site of fetal erythrocyte production.

What is the Structure of the Spleen?

Two distinct areas, white pulp and red pulp.

What is the White Pulp of the Spleen?

Containing mostly lymphocytes suspended on reticular fibers and involved in immune functions.

What is the Red Pulp of the Spleen?

Remaining splenic tissue concerned with disposing of worn out RBC's and bloodborne pathogens.

What is the Thymus?

A Bilobed organ that secretes hormones (thymosin and thymopoietin) that cause T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent.

How does the size of the Thymus vary with age?

In infants it is found in the inferior neck and extends into the mediastinum where it partially overlies the heart. It increases in size and is most active during childhood. It stops growing during adolescence and then gradually atrophies.

How does the Thymus differ from other lymhoid organs?

It functions strictly in T lymphocyte maturation, it does not directly fight antigens.

What do the hormones of the Thymus do?

Stimulate lymphocytes to become immunocompetent.

What are the Tonsils?

Simplest lymhoid organs; form a ring of lymphatic tissue around the pharynx.

What are Palatine Tonsils?

Either side of the posterior end of the oral cavity.

What are the Lingual Tonsils?

Lie at the base of the tongue.

What are the Pharyngeal Tonsils?

(Adenoids) - posterior wall of nasopharynx.

What are the Tubal Tonsils?

Surround the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx.

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