# Human Growth and development (Part 13): PSYCHOANALYTIC AND PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACHES (p. 106)

Psychodynamic theories (2)
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Originally developed by Sigmund Freud, a client is seen as the product of his past and treatment involves dealing with the repressed material in the unconscious.

According to this theory, personalities arise because of attempts to resolve conflicts between unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses and societal demands to restrain these impulses.

Freud believed that behavior and personality derive from the constant and unique interaction of conflicting
psychological forces that operate at three different levels of awareness: the preconscious, the conscious, and the unconscious.
conscious- contains all the information that a client is paying attention to at any given time.

preconscious- contains all the information outside of a client's attention but readily available if needed—thoughts and feelings that can be brought into consciousness easily.

unconscious- contains thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories of which clients have no awareness but that influence every aspect of their day-to-day lives. Freud proposed that personalities have three components: the id, the ego, and the superego.
Id- A reservoir of instinctual energy that contains biological urges such as impulses toward survival, sex, and aggression.

​Ego- The component that manages the conflict between the id and the constraints of the real world.

Superego-The moral component of personality. It contains all the moral standards learned from parents and society.
The component that manages the conflict between the id and the constraints of the real world.

Its job is to determine the best course of action based on information from the id, reality, and the superego.

When the it is comfortable with its conclusions and behaviors, a client is said to be ego-syntonic. However, if a client is bothered by some of his or her behaviors, he or she would be egodystonic (ego alien).

Some parts are unconscious, whereas others are preconscious or conscious.

operates according to the reality principle—the awareness that gratification of impulses has to be delayed in order to accommodate the demands of the real world. Its role is to prevent the id from gratifying its impulses in socially inappropriate ways.