Cognitive biases

blind spot bias
ignoring our own biases
conformation bias
focusing on information that supports your views
subjective validation
something is true if my beliefs demand it to be true
semmelweis effect
rejecting new evidence that contradicts established views
choice-supportive bias
defending a decision after you've made the choice
immediate reward bias
prefer closer or easier benefits to far-off or difficult ones
illusion of control
believing you have influence over events which are proven random or outside your ability to influence them
overconfidence effect
excessive confidence in one's ability to answer questions reliably
irrational escalation
justify increased commitment based on prior investment
ostrich effect
ignoring obvious negative evidence or outcomes
impact bias
overestimating the intensity or duration of futre feelings
bandwagon effect
going with the crowd
mere exposure effect
liking things we're familiar with, or the more we see it, the more we like it
ingroup bias
give preferential treatment to those of your own group
relying on commonly held beliefs
authority bias
we assume authority figures to be informed, capable, and working in our interest. We trust them, sometimes irrationally
interloper effect
valuing 3rd-party opinions as objective
affect heuristic
basing a decision on how it makes you feel instead of a more objective analysis
negativity bias
negative stimuli have a greater effect than neutral or positive ones
anchoring effect
making decisions based on just one trait or piece of information, or just a few
false consensus effect
tendency to overestimate whether others agree with you
projection bias
assume others share your emotions, values, etc.
normalcy bias
assuming that the way things are is the best
rosy retrospection
remembering the past as ideal
primacy/recency effect
we remember the first and last things the best
von restroff effect
something that sticks out "like a sore thumb" is more likely to be remembered
outcome bias
tendency to judge a decision by its outcome rather than the quality of that decision
hindsight bias
seeing events as predicable after they've occurred
availability cascade
the more something is repeated, the truer it becomes
availability heuristic
estimating what is more likely if it is available in memory, especially from vivid, unusual, or emotional experiences
neglect of probability
our minds are not equipped to think mathematically and we don't really understand probability
belief in statistics
trusting statistics to be prepared honestly, and treating statistical descriptions as the truth