amphetamine increases levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin by causing increased release of these neurotransmitters.
1. Amphetamine binds to the transporter protein for dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. It blocks reuptake in the process, but only briefly.
2. Amphetamine uses transport proteins to transport itself into the neuron.
3. Once inside the neuron, amphetamine inhibits the actions of a protein called vesicular monoamine transporter 2, or VMAT-2.
4. As neurotransmitter levels get very high, they seek a way out of the neuron. The neurotransmitters eventually escape by forcing transport proteins to run in reverse. This causes levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin to rise in the synaptic cleft.