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Race, gender, mass media matter because...

-shape our world views
-shape what we consider good/bad, positive/negative, moral/evil
-provide symbols, myths and resources

Media shapes our views...

through who is powerful and oppressed
-how to act
-what to wear

Top 10 media owners

i. Time Warner-USA
ii. Disney-USA
iii. Bertelsman-Germany
iv. News Corp-USA
v. Viacom-USA
vi. Comcast-USA
vii. NBC/Universal-USA
viii. Pearson-UK
ix. Fuji-Japan

Media trends

-concentration of ownership


those who use the mediated messages


what is included in the mediated messages


those who create or produce the mediated messages

University of Birmingham Cultural Studies project

identified culture as distinct form of identity and group membership
-insists culture must be studied within social relations and system

Black Sitcom Portrayal

"Real" black's never forget their roots
-lighter the better
-missing key elements
-women choose looks first

Racist ideologies

-us vs. them


-exaggerates perfection of women
-no normal female could reach her
-appeals to all types of people
-may not be a woman or heterosexual

Women in hip hop

-fitting the mold yet standing for something else
-Creole Lady Marmalade from story to sexual

Enemy Asian Male

-slurs against Asians ok because they aren't "racial
-Asians are seen as a threat
-motives are hidden

Asian American stereotypes

-weak, nerdy
-sexual, objectified
-now confident

Jewish women on TV

-No jews for many years
-the Nanny
-broken molds
-Jewish women are undesirable
-Jews don't play jews




biological classification


cognitive structure that contains the perceiver's knowledge, beliefs, and expectancies about some group


additional features associated with a schema once any features of the schema are encountered

Theory of ultimate attribution error

classifying the behavior of the "other" when we make assumptions about others in ways that favor our social group

Symbolic annihilation

media "annihilates" a group by not representing them


how our multiple identities affect our interactions with others

Culture/social identity

how we identify ourselves

Social construction of reality

negotiating one's identity in a social context

Ideology/dominant ideology

deeply-held beliefs or ideas on how the world should be or is


prejudgement of a group based on an assumption


acting on a prejudice and excluding a group

Effects of stereotypes

-Blacks and Hispanics are more likely than whites to be portrayed as criminals in news reports
-Most Americans see minority groups in a negative light
-People in a stereotyped group feel that a mistake might be attributed to whole group
-images are predictors of support for racial integration programs
-O.J. Simpson trial
-'08 election and "terrorist fist jab"
-Los Alamo scientist, Taiwan born Wen Ho lee
-Immigration debates and protests

Sex and the City

Post-feminism and queerness


traditional male/females roles switched


almost gay relationships between woman

Four main characters

a. Carrie: main character who has a sex column about her realtionships with men
b. Charlotte: more reserved and main concern is to get married and have a family
c. Samantha: sleeps around and doesn't want to be tied down
d. Miranda: cynical friend who doesn't want to do things traditionaly

American Orientals

-"the other" view of orients
-exclude's them at all costs

European Orientals

-embraced as luxurious

Latent Orientals

unconscious and uncertainty about the Orient

Manifest Orientals

what is spoken and acted upon

Virginia Slims ad

-minimized women's rights


-cross racial sexualism
-white women dominate asian


-Asian woman is in the wrong

Gay Men on American TV

-changed with time
-they don't want them their
-negative with AIDS
-confused about sexuality

Move over Mr. Humphreys

-brave to come out in 1970s
-didn't like negative portrayals
-have come a long way

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