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escape path

place to go in case of possible conflict


process of searching critical areas in a regular sequence


six areas of spaces around the vehicle

path of travel

the space your vehicle will occupy

open zone

a space where you can drive free of restrictions to your line of sight or path of travel

space cushion

area of space around the vehicle that is free of restriction, hazards, and conflicts when you use it

field of vision

all of the area that is visible to the driver when looking straight ahead

closed zone

a space not open because of restrictions in your line of sight or path of travel

compromise space

give as much space as possible to the greater hazard

minimize a hazard

reducing risk by putting more distance between yourself and the hazard


the gripping power between the tire and the road surface

selective seeing

selecting and identifying only those clues or restrictions, hazards, or conflicts that are important to your driving task

target area

area far ahead in your path of travel and the area to the left and right

12-15 second range

the recommended searching area for identifying changes in your line of sight and path of travel

peripheral vision

the part of a field of vision surrounding the central vision

4-6 second range

the searching range where you need to get the final update of how you are controlling your intended path of travel


when the driver follows the process of an orderly visual search pattern

separate hazards

adjusting your speed in order to handle one hazard at a time

central vision

that part of a field of vision where you can see clearly and sharply

line of sight

the distance you can see ahead in the direction you are looking

three hazards of driving

1. glare
2. contrast
3. depth perception

high beams

shine high and further, to be used only on open country roads, 500 feet shine

low beams

when you turn your car on and its too dark, normally use there 150 feet shine

overdriving headlights

driving so fast that your eyes can't process all the information on the road. to fix, slow down.

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