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Nutrition Chapter 5
Terms in this set (30)
Of the following, the food that would provide the most energy per ounce is...
d. hard candy
Butter would provide the most energy per ounce because fat is the densest energy source. Fat provides 9 kcal/g; protein and carbohydrate each provide 4 kcal/g. Tuna is mostly protein with just a small amount of fat, pasta is mostly carbohydrate, and hard candy is only carbohydrate, and so all of these would provide fewer calories per ounce than would butter.
The most beneficial function of cholesterol in the body is...
a. formation of sex hormones , bile, and vitamin D
b. depositing plagues in arteries
c. being part of cell membrane structure
d. solubility in both water and fat
The body uses sterols such as cholesterol to make sex hormones, bile, and vitamin D. Cholesterol does contribute to deposition of arterial plaques, but this is not beneficial to the body. Cell membrane structure and solubility in both water and fat are functions of phospholipids; cholesterol is a sterol, not a phospholipid.
If a patient receiving parenteral nutrition develops eczema, the patient probably has...
a. vitamin C deficiency
b. essential fatty acid deficiency
c. protein-energy malnutrition
d. phospholipid and sterol deficiency
In a patient receiving fat-free parenteral nutrition, eczema may be a sign of essential fatty acid deficiency. Eczema is not caused by vitamin C deficiency; symptoms of vitamin C deficiency include bleeding gums and breakdown of scar tissue. Eczema is not a sign of protein-energy malnutrition. The body makes phospholipids and sterol, and so deficiency does not occur.
If a food that is usually made with hydrogenated oil is made with vegetable oil instead, one potential concern is that the...
a. flavor will be significantly different
b. food will feel oily to the touch
c. food will contribute more to cardiovascular risk
d. food will have a shorter shelf life
Hydrogenation of vegetable oils increases their shelf life because the double bonds are removed, which renders the fatty acids less vulnerable to oxidation; therefore, a food made with vegetable oil may have a shorter shelf life. Use of vegetable oil does not necessarily result in a different flavor from use of hydrogenated fat and does not make the food feel more oily. Foods made with vegetable oils are less likely to contribute to cardiovascular disease than those made with hydrogenated fats, which contain saturated and trans fatty acids.
A triglyceride is a compound composed of...
a. glycerol with two fatty acids attached
b. glycerol with three amino acids attached
c. glycerol with three fatty acids attached
d. organic molecules formed in triangular chains
Triglycerides are compounds made up of glycerol and three fatty acids. The compound of glycerol plus two fatty acids is a diglyceride. Glycerol does not combine with amino acids. Triglycerides do not form in triangular chains.
To decrease intake of saturated fatty acids and increase intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid, one dietary change would be from using _____ to using _____ oil.
a. shortening ; coconut
b. margarine ; olive
c. soybean ; canola
d. butter ; sunflower
Sunflower oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and butter is rich in saturated fatty acids; therefore, this switch would have the best effect. Shortening actually has higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower amounts of saturated fatty acids than does coconut oil. Olive oil contains lower amounts of saturated fatty acids than does margarine, but it is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, not polyunsaturated fatty acids. Both canola oil and soybean oil have relatively low amounts of saturated fatty acids; canola oil contains mostly monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas soybean oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.
If a client wants to lose 1 lb of body fat each week, he or she would need to make sure that the daily calorie intake was lower than the daily energy needs by _____ kcal/day.
One pound of body fat contains 3500 kcal. To create a weekly deficit of 3500 kcal, daily energy intake would need to be less than daily energy expenditure by 500 kcal (3500 ÷ 7).
Of the following fats, the one that is most likely to be liquid is...
a. milk fat
b. beef drippings
c. coconut oil
d. peanut oil
In general, plant oils are more liquid and animal fats tend to be solid. Both milk fat (butter) and beef drippings (lard) have high amounts of saturated fatty acids and tend to be solid fats. Coconut oil is a plant oil, but it has high amounts of saturated fatty acids, and so it is usually solid. Peanut oil has high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids and is a liquid oil.
The number of double bonds present in the fatty acid chain determines the...
a. number of fatty acids attached to the glycerol molecule
b. number of glycerol molecules attacked to a fatty acid
c. degree of saturation or unsaturated of a fatty acid
d. degree of saturation or unsaturated of the glycerol molecule
The number of double bonds in a fatty acid chain determines the degree of saturation or unsaturation of a fatty acid. The number of fatty acids attached to the glycerol molecule determines whether it is a monoglyceride (one fatty acid), a diglyceride (two fatty acids), or a triglyceride (three fatty acids). There is never more than one glycerol molecule attached to a fatty acid, and glycerol molecules do not vary in the degree of saturation or unsaturation.
A client who wishes to avoid blood clots may benefit from regular intake of...
a. fish oil capsules
d. olives and olive oil
Omega-3 fatty acids help decrease risk of blood clots. The best source of omega-3 fatty acids is fatty fish, such as salmon; fish oil capsules are not recommended because large doses may decrease immunity. Lecithin and the monounsaturated fatty acids found in olive oil do not decrease risk of blood clotting.
Overall energy intake can be greatly affected by relatively small changes in intake of...
Fat contains more energy per gram than any other nutrient (9 kcal/g versus 4 kcal/g for protein and carbohydrate and 9 kcal/g for alcohol). Therefore, relative small increases or decreases in fat intake can result in significant increases or decreases in energy intake.
The number of kilocalories provided by 23 g of fat is...
If dietary analysis shows that fat provides 31% of an individuals energy intake, their fat intake would be...
a. considered below the recommended range
b. considered within the recommended range
c. considered above the recommended range
d. generally recognized as safe
The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for fat is 20% to 35% of kilocalories; therefore, 31% is within the recommended range. "Generally recognized as safe" is a term used for food additives.
Sources of invisible fat include...
a. pastries and pies
b. bacon and chicken with shin
c. butter and sour cream
d. oil and vinegar salad dressing
In baked goods such as pastries and pies, the fat cannot be seen; it is absorbed into the flour, which makes it invisible. Bacon has visible strips of white fat, chicken skin is visibly fatty, butter and sour cream can be seen unless they are melted into toast or potatoes, and oil can be seen floating on top of the vinegar in salad dressing.
An example of emulsification is...
a. chewing of food in the mouth
b. use of egg yolk to make mayonnaise
c. commercial hydrogenation of liquid oils
d. digestion of fat in the small intestine
The lecithin in egg yolk acts as an emulsifier in the making of mayonnaise. Chewing of food is mastication. Hydrogenation of liquid oils does not emulsify them. In the small intestine, bile emulsifies fat to increase the surface area for digestion, but the fat is not actually digested there.
For someone with coronary heart disease, what would be the most helpful piece of information on a food label?
a. total calories per serving
b. milligrams of cholesterol per serving
c. grams of saturated fat per serving
d. grams of total fat per serving
Saturated fat intake has the greatest influence on blood cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease. Intakes of total fat and total energy are important, but not as important as saturated fat. Intake of cholesterol is less important be- cause most cholesterol is made by the body, and dietary sources contribute relatively little.
If a salad dressing is made with olive oil, it would contain mostly _____ fatty acids.
Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. Trans fatty acids are found in hydrogenated fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are found mostly in other liquid vegetable oils. Saturated fatty acids are found in dairy, meat fats, and coconut and palm oil.
The best description of a fat with high amounts of trans fatty acids is that it is...
a. liquid at room temperature
b. found naturally in tropical oils
c. easily transformed from one state to another
d. produced by hydrogenation of plant oils
Trans fatty acids are formed when liquid plant oils are hydrogenated to form a hard fat, such as margarine or shortening. Trans fatty acids are not naturally present in any fats or oils, and fats with high amounts of trans fatty acids tend to form solid, rather than liquid, fats at room temperature. Trans fatty acids are shelf stable and so are not easily transformed.
An alternative to hydrogenation to increase the shelf life of polyunsaturated fat is the addition of...
a. vitamin E
b. vitamin D
Antioxidants provide a way to preserve unsaturated fats without hydrogenation. Vitamin E is an example of an antioxidant that may be added to unsaturated fats. Vitamin D and zinc do not have antioxidant properties. Hydrogen is added during hydrogenation.
The most important property of phospholipids that makes them valuable both in foods and in the body is that they...
a. carry fat-soluble vitamins
b. are useful as low-energy fat substitutes
c. are soluble in water and fat at the same time
d. function as natural antioxidants
Phospholipids are valuable in foods and in the body because they are soluble in water and fat at the same time. This makes them useful emulsifiers and important components of cell membranes. Phospholipids have no particular role in carrying fat-soluble vitamins. They are not used as fat substitutes. They do not function as antioxidants.
Most fat enters the lymphatic system after...
Most fat is absorbed into the lymphatic system from the small intestine. It then passes into the circulation. There- fore, circulation and metabolism occur after, not before, fat enters the lymphatic system. Hydrogenation occurs during food production and is not connected to processing of fat in the body.
Jacob usually eats a sandwich with salami, mayonnaise, lettuce, and tomato on wheat bread for lunch. What change would be most helpful in decreasing his risk of cardiovascular disease?
a. add sports instead of tomato
b. switch to whole-wheat bread
c. omit the mayonnaise
d. replace the salami with turkey
Replacing the salami with turkey would be most beneficial because salami has high amounts of saturated fatty acids, which tend to increase blood cholesterol levels. Turkey also contains saturated fatty acids but has low amounts of fat overall. Switching the whole-wheat bread would increase dietary fiber intake, which would also help decrease blood cholesterol level, but the effect would not be as great as a decrease in saturated fat. Omitting the mayonnaise would help decrease overall fat intake, but the fat in mayonnaise is mostly unsaturated and so it would be less beneficial than using a lower fat meat. Both sprouts and tomatoes add vitamin C and other nutrients, and so this change would make very little difference nutritionally.
High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) are associated with an increased risk of...
a. diabetes mellitus
b. high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc)
c. coronary artery disease
d. high blood pressure and stroke
High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. They do not have a direct effect on risk for diabetes mellitus or high blood pressure and stroke. LDLc and HDLc levels are not necessarily related.
A client who is trying to follow a low-fat eating pattern tells you that he or she has experienced diarrhea. You may want to find out whether he or she has...
a. eaten foods made with the fat substitute carrageenan
b. eaten foods made with the fat substitute olestra
c. greatly increased intake of fish and seafood
d. developed essential fatty acid deficiency
Olestra is a fat substitute that is not digested or absorbed and may cause diarrhea if eaten in large quantities. Carrageenan is a carbohydrate that is digested and does not cause diarrhea. Fish and seafood consumption and essential fatty acid deficiency are not associated with diarrhea.
The client most likely to benefit from use of medium-chain triglycerides is one who...
a. has essential fatty acid deficiency
b. has malabsorption because of removal of part of the small intestine
c. needs to gain weight after surgery and chemotherapy to treat bowel cancer
d. has high levels of both serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Medium-chain triglycerides are beneficial for patients with malabsorption because they are relatively easily absorbed. They do not contain essential fatty acids. They contain the same amount of energy as other fatty acids, and so they would not be especially beneficial for a client who needs to gain weight. They do not influence serum cholesterol levels.
A good lunch choice for someone who wants to increase intake of omega-3 fatty acids would be
a. peanut butter and jelly sandwich.
b. lentil soup.
c. salad with olive oil dressing.
d. grilled tuna sandwich.
Fatty fish, such as tuna, are an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids, and so the grilled tuna sandwich would be the best choice. Peanut butter and olive oil have high amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids but are not good sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Lentil soup is likely to have low amounts of fat.
If a person did not produce bile,
a. fats would pass through the intestines undigested.
b. fats would be digested and absorbed too quickly.
c. fat digestion may occur more slowly.
d. digestion of fat would be unaffected.
Bile emulsifies dietary fats to increase their surface area for action of digestive enzymes. Therefore, without bile, digestion of fat would occur more slowly. Because of mixing and churning of chyle with digestive secretions and enzymes in the small intestine through peristalsis and segmentation, digestion would still occur, but more slowly.
A client who is a bodybuilder eats large quantities of tuna, chicken, and lean meats every day. Any extra energy from these foods that the clients body does not need will be stored as...
a. adios tissue
b. essential body fat
c. muscle tissue
Extra energy from any source is stored as fat in adipose tissue. Muscle is developed in response to exercise; it re- quires some protein, but extra protein cannot be stored as muscle tissue. Glycogen stores in the body are limited. Essential body fat is the fat that protects organs and nerve cells; its amount does not increase with dietary excess.
A healthy daily fat intake for someone who eats 3000 kcal per day is _____ g.
b. 33 to 83
c. 67 to 117
d. 600 to 1050
The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for fat is 20% to 35% of energy intake. Of 3000 kcal, 20% to 35% is 600 to 1050 kcal. Fat contains 9 kcal per gram, and so this represents approximately 67 to 117 g (600/9 to 1050/9 g) of fat daily.
A client grew up on a farm and learned to prepare foods with butter and lard produced by the farm animals. She is now in her 60s and has just learned that she has coronary artery disease. To best meet her physical needs, as well as psychological needs, the health practitioner should...
a. suggest that she adopt a low-fat vegetarian dietary pattern.
b. ask how she usually prepares foods and suggest ways to reduce the use of animal fat.
c. advise her to eat more fruits and vegetables and to replace some of the animal fat with palm and coconut oil.
d. advise her to avoid adding fat to foods and eat only very lean poultry and fish.
The health practitioner should start with the ways the client usually prepares food and suggest ways in which she can use less animal fat and more heart-healthy unsaturated fats without making dramatic or arbitrary changes. A low-fat vegetarian dietary pattern is not necessary and may be unacceptable to the client. Eating more fruits and vegetables may be beneficial, but palm and coconut oil are high in saturated fat, which would not be helpful. It is probably not necessary for her to avoid adding any fat to foods and to eat only very lean poultry and fish; such drastic changes might not be maintained by the client.
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