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Terms in this set (46)
Major cities in the hill country that were part of the tribal inheritance of Manasseh
Samaria, Shechem, Tirzah
geological structure of Manasseh
Eocene at Mt. Ebal and Gilboa. Senonian and Eocene on the western slopes (making it accessible) Samaria is a western slope and easily attackable
what city lies between Mts. Ebal and Gerizim
why was Shechem such an important city for a long time
capital of the northern kingdom
why was shechem a likely candidate for the capital of the northern kingdom
ties to the patriarchs and is the site of covenant renewal. Abraham entered the land of Shechem and it was here that the Lord came and told him he would receive the land.
describe the regions that surround the three successive capitals of the northern kingdom
starts at shechem moves to tirzah and finally samaria
why were they more accessible than the city of Jerusalem
lower hills and wider valleys makes them more accessible
who moved the capital to its third location
omri moved the capital to Samaria because he wanted to be closer to Phoenicia and its influence. Takes a Phoenician princess (Jezebel) for son Ahab
What evidence do we have from Samaria that possibly enhances our understanding of the prophetic message of Amos and also gives us a backfrop for the Ahab and Elijah narrative?
intricately carved ivories from Phoenicia were found in Samaria. In Amos 6 the prophet condemns the complacent people of Israel on their "beds of ivory". We know that Omri moved the capitl of Israel to Samaria in order to receive the cosmopolitan influence of Phoenicia. also Jezebel was a Phoenician princess an Elijah was condemning in a similar fashion as Amos.
Where had the ark o f the covenant been kept for much of the period of the Judges?
Shiloh for most of Judges
why was that a logical choice for its safe-keeping
in samaria or hill country of Ephraim and as naturally protected. It isn't on the main north south route and was away from normal traffic. also in the hill country which is isolated. finally, protected by the Shioh wadi system (rugged and similar to the Sorek system of the west)
who was priest when the ark was taken out to battle with the Philistines?
At what city did the philistines engage the Israelites?
Eli; fought near Aphek (on Yarqon River the northern boundary of the Philistine Plaine and conjuction of two southern branches of the ICH; Israelites were trying to use it as a supernatural charm to win the battle, they lost battle and ark to "Philistines, Eli died haring about the ark, Shiloh was destroyed pointed out by Jeremiah, Philistines returned ark to Ashdod and are cursed, they removed it from there and went to Gath where a similar incident happened. Took it to Ekron and they rejected it took it back to Beth Shemesh with guilt offering.
What city lies on the southern boundary of Ephraim and was the location of one of the golden calves set up by Jeroboam, son of Nebat
Bethel. the golden calf was placed in Dan
When and why did Caesarea on the Sharon Plain come to be so important?
New Testament times/ Herodian period.
Herod constructed a harbor-- underwater cement that was laid in sunken wooden frames through leather shuts. casemate wall allowed silt to filter out instead of clogging the harbor. Harbor was large enough to host a majority of the Roman fleet.
purpose was to create a cosmopolitan Roman City that would influence Israel. Built a temple to Roma and Caesar here.
**in contrast to Herod's purpose, Caesarea actually became a staging point from which Christianity came out of Israel into the world. In the end, it is Christ's legacy that is spread not Herod's.
What is the water source for Caesarea Maritima?
aqueducts bringing water from Mt. Carmel
What narratives in Acts focus on Caesarea?
Acts 23-25- Paul imprisoned here for two years before continuing on his way to Rome for trial
Acts 10- story of Cornelius: Gentile declared clean by God through a vision to Peter (Peter travels up from Joppa)
Acts 12 (also told by Josephus)- death of Herod Agrippa. People called him a god but he did not rebuke them so God struck him down and he was eaten by worms
Acts 21 Phillips the evangelist lives here and has four daughter who have the gift of prophecy. Prophet Agabus bind Paul and prophesies that he will be bound by the Jews in Jerusalem and turned over to the Gentiles.
What archeological find in Caesarea corroborates our knowledge from the Gospels
found an inscription on a stone that had been reused by the Crusaders for a stepping stone. Name Pontius Pilate on the stone who was the prefect of Judea. same wording used in the BIble
The theatre corroborates Acts 12 and Herod's palace with is its place for prisons and visiting guests corroborates Paul's imprisonment
what is qurquar and why is it important in terms of geology of the Coastal Plain?
calcified sandstone, it impedes drainage of water from the hills flowing into the sea and resulted in swamps
describe Sharon plain
stretches from the Yarqon River to the Tanninim, consists mostly of brown-red sands bordered in the east by areas of alluvium. west- scattered sand dunes along the Mediterranean sea break the line of brown red sands. a series of parallel north south ridges (made of solidified sand dunes called qurqar impede drainage and result in swamps. the existence of the swamps (which have been drained in modern times) discouraged farmers from clearing the land in antiquity and the area largely remained covered with the oak forest.
swamps and forests inhibit travel in the region
Aphek is on the southern edge of the Sharon plain.
What city defines the small plain north of Caesarea?
city of Dor defines the small plain of Dor. it is North of the Sharon Plain an south of the Mt. Carmel range.
Acco is the western border of Galilee
What is the geological structure of Mt. Carmel that helps us appreciate the Elijah narratives?
Carmel is Cenomanian with a variety of exposed Eocene in the shephelah of Carmel. in between soft and hard limestone is always chalk. This chalk has eroded to produce the three passes through the Carmel Range.
the mountain should have received a lot of rain, especially as mt carmel juts out into the Mediterranean so would've been the first to receive moist ocean air, and since the soil was cenomanian it should have been lush agriculturally. This helps us appreciate the Elijah narratie more because no rain for three and a half years was quite dramatic and unnatural.
what gateways are significant as we think of the Jezreel valley
Phoenician and carmel gateways
plain of acco is a gateway from the north for phoenicia along the coastland of Tyre and Sidon
three passes into the Jezreel Valley:
Jokneam, Megiddo Pass, and Dothan Pass
What geographical feature defines the boundaries of the Jezreel Valley
large alluvial valley surrounded by hills of various rock types.
These are the following: central nd western Samaria and the Carmel Range and Shephelah of Carmel to the South, the Eocene hills of the Shephelah of Galilee to the northwest, the largely cenomanian hills of lower galilee to the north and the area of harder Eocene hills covered with basalt to the northeast. some significant geographical features to the East include: Mt. Tabor, Moreh, and Gilboa
entrances and exits into Jezreel valley
kishon pass, jokneam pass, Megiddo pass, Iblim/Dothan pass, Harod Valley; Mt. Tabor; Shimron Pass
major jezreel valley battles
Deborah an Barak narratives in Judges 4-5
Deborah prophetess in Bethel, Barak way north in Kadesh, Israelites gather on Mt. Tabor because the armies of JAbin king of Hazor and his general Sisera have iron chariots. The Lord intervenes with a storm and the wheels of the chariots get stuck. River Kishon sweeps them away
Gideon Narrative in Judges 6-8
spring o Harod foot of Mt. Gilboa he sifts through his army. Spring of Harod serves as Gideon's camp, the Midianites camp in Moreh
Saul and Jonathon's death in 1 Sam 28, 31... Philistines go north into Jezreel valley, cut off the four northern tribes. they encamp on Mt Moreh whie the Israelites camp on Mt. Gilboa. Saul consults the witch at Endor, Israelites defeated
strategic military ground?
passes to the sea and desert. gates on the great road between the empires of Euphrates and Nile between continents of Asia and AFrica
Kishon brooks significant in which narratives
Deborah and Barak narrative and the Elijah vs. Prophets of Baal narrative
What valley connects the Jezreel Valley with the Jordan Valley
What events took place in this context with Mt. Gilboa and Mt. Moreh as backdrops?
conflict with Philistines that resulted in Saul'd death: ISraelites are on Mt. Gilboa and Philistines Mt. Moreh
What events took place at Beth Shean?
1 Sam 31- Saul's defeat and death at the hand of the Philistine's was "celebrated" at Beth-Shean by hanging his body on the city walls, the men of Jabesh-gilead repaid their debt to him by crossing the Jordan and removing and burying his remains
David Captures the city\
Tiglatch Pileser III burns the city\
Durign the Maccabean Revolt, the high priest Jonathan is killed here
Scythopolis was the name for Beth Shean in the 2nd Temple Period and NT
When Saul consulted the witch at En-Dor, what risky geopolitical move was he making (in addition the catastrophic religious error)
Saul had to cross enemy lines in order to consult the witch: En-Dor was north of Mt. Moreh and the Israelites were encamped at Mt. Gilboa (at least according to the most commonly held location for En-Dor)
What areas of Galilee were always more threatened by the Syrian power to the NE
city of Dan, the NW shore of the Sea of Galilee, the Golan Heights/Bashan area
Why did Solomon fortify Gezer, Megiddo, and Hazor
Gezer and Megiddo are on major crossroads
Gezer is on the ICH and the western edge of the east-west route through the territory of Benjamin
Megiddo is on the ICH and also guards the central route through the Carmel Mt Range
controlling these cities meant controlling ICH
What period of Biblal history was Galilee the most important?
New Testament- fous of Jesus ministry in the Synoptic Gospels
Is,. 9 "galilee of the gentiles"
how are lower and upper galilee distinct from each other?
Galilee is geologically complex. Upper Galilee is primarily high mountains made of Cenomanian limestone and therefore shares similar characteristics wit hteh tribal territory of Ephraim and Judah-- deep valleys, conservative communities, difficult connections and travel on the ridge routes.
Lower Galilee, low hills and wide open valleys W-E create a wind tunnel to the Sea of Galilee
Upper Galilee is an isolated region with very little significant history. Phoenicia moves as far south as Mt. Carmel in the OT because there was no significant natural boundary.
divide between upper and lower
Beth Hakerem Valley
capital in Jesus day
Roman capital of Sepphoris--Joseph stonemason here?
main cities around sea of galilee
Capernaum, Chinnereth, Tiberias, Aphek, Bethsaida, Gennesaret, Korizim, Tiberius, Magdala
move to Capernaum signficant
tried to throw him off a cliff and strategic in terms of commerce and travel
what cities received condemning words from Jesus
Chorazin Bethsaida and Capernaum
Why were Galileans viewed with suspicion in the 1st century
Nazareth anything good\\
can the Christ come from Galilee
Galilee had only recently converted to Judaism\forcibly converted n Hasmonean "Period
and racially mixed people
"galilee of the gentiles" Is. 9
factors contributed to the importance of Hazor?
major crossroads on the ICH while also on main east - west route also a mjor Canaanite city before Joshua destroyed it.
Biblical incidients centered around that city?
Joshua `11 Hazor leads the coalition of northern cities who go out to fight Israel
Joshua defeats them and Hazore was burned to the ground and people killed
Judges 4-5 The Deborah/Barak narrative. Jabin was king of Hazor
1 Kings 9 Solomon fortified Hazor in 1 Kings 9
Why were Bethel and Dan such strategic locatios for Jeroboam's location of the golden calves?
Bethel was at southern endo f Jeroboam's kingdom while Dan was at the northern end. this made worship easier for the Israelites since they did not have to go as far to Jerusalem to worship
Why would the tribe of Dan migrate to the northern region?
because they couldn't defeat the Canaanite who were living in the land they were allotted and because the land by Dan is very good. proved to be a mistake bc were on the front lines of invasion from the north
brought Micah's idol..history of false worship
inscription found in dan
Tel Dan inscription..references to the house of david supporting Davidic dynasty in the 10th century against claims of those scholars whjo say he is a myth
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