Unit 10 - Personality
psychodynamic perspectives, humanistic perspectives, trait perspectives, personological and life story perspectives, social cognitive perspectives, biological perspectives, personality assessment, personality and health and wellness
Terms in this set (139)
a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world
theoretical views emphasizing that personality is primarily unconscious (beyond awareness)
- natural human reactions, etc. --> pertains to biology
unconditional positive regard
Rogers; experience of being treated with warmth, respect, acceptance, and mob regardless of their feelings, attitudes and behaviors; example: I may not agree with what you do, but I love you can matter what
- application: according to the humanistic perspective, a child who receives unconditional positive regard from her parents is likely to avoid the problems associated with conditions of worth
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
projective personality test; developed at Harvard by Murray and Associates; 20 cards with figures in ambiguous situations; person is asked to interpret the card (tell what is happening, leading up to and following the image); examined for content, language, consistency, organization, and originality
- applicaiton: not a self-report test
projective personality test; Hermann Rorschach, Swiss psychiatrist; inkblot test; person specifies what they see in each blot; and MMPI 2 is more valid
- not relaible, not valid
- application: tell a story that you think is happening in the picture
Freud's theory of personality and form of therapy; based on bringing the conscious unconscious; uses techniques such as free association, dream interpretation, and transference
prominent in Freudian theory; ideas, thoughts, feelings of which we are not aware normally; basis of psychoanalysis
Freudian; unconscious urges and desires; selfish needs; operates on pleasure principle-any means to satisfy need; which fulfillment-mental object/situation to relieve the feeling
Freudian; partial or complete halt at one of the psychosexual stages of development; when individual fails to complete the psychosexual task successfully; can be expressed as personality traits
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 0-18 months; focus: oral cavity; task: transition from bottle/breast to solid food; conflict: id derives pleasure from sucking/excepting into mouth; if child fails to complete tasks, (s)he becomes fixated; fixations-underindulged oral-suspicious, sarcastic, pessimistic, trust issues; overindulged oral-clingy, optimistic, gullible, needy
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 18 months-3 years; focus: anus-retention/expulsion of species; task: to successfully learned toilet training; conflict: id derives pleasure from retention/expulsion, whereas ego and superego represents society the practical/societal pressures to control bodily functions; if child fails to complete the task,(s)he becomes fixated; fixations-anal expulsion-messy, disorganized, reckless, careless, defiant; anal-retentive-neat, precise, orderly, stingy, obstinate, meticulous, passive-aggressive
Freudian idea that energy is from sexual instinct; Jungian idea that energy is everything
theories that behavior results from the psychological forces that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awareness; linked by Freud
Rogers; drive of an individual to achieve his/her self-concept or self image; living up to the image of yourself that you create
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (2), revised in 1980s; objective tests; most widely used object of personality test; originally developed as an aid in diagnosing psychiatric disorders; two versions-adult and adolescent
Bandura; personal references; how people write their behavior in a variety of situations to help guide behavior in the future
personality tests that consists of a simple ambiguous stimuli to elicit a number of responses; advantages-flexible, can take in a relaxed atmosphere, but this event may not know the purpose of the test (less likely to be of eight); examples-Rorschach, Rotter sentence completion test, TAT
Jung; our public self; the mask we wear to project that part of our personality outward towards others
Jung; female archetype as expressed in a man; masculine side of a woman; originates in the collective unconscious; comes from women's experiences with men which create the concept of men, appears in dreams, visions, fantasies
Jung; male archetype as expressed in a woman; feminine side of man; originates in the collective unconscious; comes from men's experiences with women which combine into the concept of women; shows as an image of feelings/mood
Jung; thought forms or collective memories passed down from generation to generation and stored in the collective unconscious; ancient/archaic images derived from the collective unconscious; examples-mother Earth, father Time, hero, wise old man, trickster, the Joker
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 3-6 years; focus: genitals; task: Explorer genital region, develop a relationship with parents, especially same gender parent; conflict: Oedipus/Electra complex-child competes with same-sex parents were opposite sex parent's attention; fixations-male-Castration Anxiety-because father possesses mother and therefore has power, dad "castrates" sign (removes power), must prove self, dominant, marries mother figure; female-penis envy-according to Freud penis equals power, submissive, dates older men
individual's unique patterns of thought, feelings, and behavior that persist over time; unique, stable, enduring
aspect used in MBTI; Jung; one of two general attitude types; taken at the interest in the world and events around them, turn attention toward external world; energy is gained from outside or external sources; everyone contains both, one is dominant (extro-, introvert)
powerful motivating force; individuals reaction to real/imagine dangers; Freud says anxiety emerges from sexual conflicts; Horney says that comes because children depend on adults for survival, one defenses are threatened anxiety occurs
humanistic personality theory
- normally associated with Maslow and Rogers
- any personality theory that emphasizes that people are positively motivated and progress towards higher levels of functioning (more to human existence than dealing with hidden conflicts)
- stresses people to potential for growth and change as people experience life
- people have the innate ability to cope with stress on to control their lives
- asks question: can changing your feelings about yourself increase happiness
dimensions or characteristics that account for personality differences; examples-dependency, anxiety, sociability; Allport created a list of thousands
Cattell (1965); statistical technique; find that 200 traits tend to cluster in groups (traits are from Allport's/Odbert's lists)
cognitive-social learning theory
behavior is a product of the interaction of cognitive (thinking), learning, and past experiences; unique to each person
16 personality factor questionnaire
Cattell; personality boils down to 16 basic dimensions of personality; questionnaire used in universities and businesses for personnel selection and research
locus of control
Rotter; cognitive strategies; used to evaluate situations, reinforcement comes in two ways: internal-you control your fate, external-chance & fate, behavior of others determine destiny
Bandura; cognitive social learning theory; expectancy that one's efforts will be successful
personality test that is administered and scored in a standard way; personality inventory; yes/no are typical answers; most widely used; drawbacks-self-report, familiarity with other tests may affect individuals answers; examples-16 PF, and MBTI, MMPI(2), and NEO-PI-r
Horney; neuroses = anxiety; 3 strategies for coping with neuroses created by unmet needs: a) moving towards people-submission-given in, having a dominant partner; be) moving against people-aggression-anger, violence, altercation; see) moving away from people-detachment-withdrawal, isolation
Freud; id process by which the id seeks immediate gratification by any means necessary to receive pleasure and avoid pain; done in two ways-which fulfillment (day dream/dreams), ego processes
Freud; part of the personality that mediates between the selfishness of the id and the conscientiousness of the superego; uses the reality principle to satisfy id without harming superego's ideals; "self"
- application: considers the problems with/trouble you could get into by doing what the id wants
Freud; ego process; means by which the ego satisfies the id without compromising the value/morals are the superego
Freud; "moral watchdog"; governs behavior by reality and morality, often taught by parents, church and/or community; standards develop through interaction; conscience; ego ideal
- application: makes you feel guilty
Freud; ideal of perfection; part of the superego that consists of the standards of what you would like to be
Freud, conflict of psychosexual stages; phallic stage, ages 3-6; consists of a transition in the phallic stage; child competes the same-sex parent were opposite gender parent's attention; can manifest in later personality-male: castration anxiety, dominant, tries to prove self, marries "mom"; female: penis envy, submissive, dates older men (like dad)
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 6-12; sexual drive lies dormant, focuses on social nature and development of friendships, seen as period of repression (as sexual drives), all libido energy is poured into school and sports
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 12+; focus: genitals; task: intimate and sexual relationships; conflict: if fixated in previous stages, it may reappear
Jung; one of two levels; contains individuals repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas; can be triggered; similar to Freud's unconscious and preconscious
Jung; memories/behavior patterns inherited from past generations; shared by all humans; deep roots in the ancestral past an entire species; manifest as archetypes, myths, and legends
aspect used in MBTI; Jung; one of two general attitude types; caught up in personal world, unsociable, lack confidence in dealing with people; energy is gained from within self, long exposure to people is draining; one is dominant (extro-, introvert)
Jung; further division of people who regulate actions by thinking and feeling; aspect used in MBTI
Jung; further division of people who base actions on perceptions, includes senses/sensation or unconscious/intuition; aspect used in MBTI
Adler; a person's effort to overcome imagined or real personal weakness: inferiority complex or superiority complex
Adler; fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that result in emotional and social paralysis
type of trait theory; five basic traits: extroversion (where you draw energy from), conscientiousness (dependability), agree ability (how you get along with others), emotional stability (self-explanatory), openness (culture, new experiences)
conditional positive regard
Rogers; experience that love, acceptance, respect, and warmth, with the condition (or price tag); example: mommy doesn't love girls who do..., if you love me then..., that's nice but wouldn't you rather...
Rogers; drive of individual to reach the biological potential or blueprint; capability of what someone can the calm
sex (according to Freud)
the master defense mechanism; the ego pushes unacceptable impulses out of awareness, back into the unconscious mind.
- application: not remembering a traumatic event
the ego replaces a less acceptable motive with a more acceptable one
the ego shifts feelings toward an unacceptable object to a more acceptable object.
the ego replaces an unacceptable impulse with a socially acceptable one
- application: feelings of violence --> playing video games
the ego attributes personal shortcomings, problems and faults to others
- application: you cheated or wanted to cheat --> accusing significant other of cheating
the ego transforms an unacceptable motive into its opposite.
the ego refuses to acknowledge anxiety-producing realities
- application: working on a bomb squad/as a fireman/etc. --> not worrying about safety
the ego seeks the security of an earlier developmental period in the face of stress
- application: acting like a child
- application: finding comfort in childhood places
parts of the body that have especially strong pleasure-giving qualities at particular stages of development.
refers to the boy's intense fear of being mutilated by his father
the intense desire to obtain a penis by eventually marrying and bearing a son
because girls dont have a penis they experience this
someone who is obsessively neat and organized
...Psychodynamic approach- obsessed with sex
While Horney followed much of Sigmund Freud's theory, she disagreed with his views on female psychology. She rejected his concept of penis envy, declaring it to be both inaccurate and demeaning to women. Horney instead proposed the concept of womb envy in which men experience feelings of inferiority because they cannot give birth to children.
...Carl Jung's work left a notable impact on psychology. His concepts of introversion and extraversion have contributed to personality psychology and also influenced psychotherapy.
- birth order was important to personality development and individual psychology
- people are primarily motivated to overcome perceived shortcomings
birth order (according to Adler)
middle child is most successful. first born is more likley to be the problem child amd the youngest is spoiled
theoretical views stressing a persons capacity for personal growth and positive human qualities.
maslow referred to humanistic psychology as this psychology because it stressed neither freudian drives nor the stimulus-response principles of behavioralism
breath taking moments of spiritual insight
our conscious representation of who we are and who we wish to become, during childhood
includes activities that improve awareness and identity, develop talents and potential, build human capital and facilitate employability, enhance quality of life and contribute to the realization of dreams and aspirations.
is a macro theory of human motivation and personality, concerning people's inherent growth tendencies and their innate psychological needs.
belief that people have a feeling of whether something is morally right or wrong?
heiarchy of needs and self actualization
believed we have the raw ingredients to succeed in life we just need the right environment
Father of american psychology did not believe in psychodynamic approaches. Trait personality- lexical approach
strong vs weak tendency
strong trait vs. weak traits?
allport pulled out all the words that could be used to describe the person. started with 18000 words and pulled it down to 4500
related to liberal values, open-mindedness, tolerance and creativity. associated with superior cognitive functioning and IQ across the life span.
a key factor in a variety of life domains. positively related to grades and better friendships forgiving attitude and higher levels of religious faith. dress neatly etc.
- application: most important in terms of health and longevity
more likely than others to engage in social activities and to experience gratitude and a strong sense of meaning in life
related to generosity and altruism, to reports of religious faith and to more satisfying romantic relationships
related to feeling negative emotion more often than positive emotion and more lingering and negative states
- application: someone high on this might be anxious and insecure
incorporates a sixth dimension, honesty/humility, to capture the moral dimensions of personality
first criminal profile thing?
- made TV show Criminal Minds possible--thanks!
- study of the whole person
- coined by Henry Murray - used to make the first criminal profile on Hitler during WWII
need for achievement
an enduring concern for attaining excellence and overcoming obstacles
- application (presidents):
need for affiliation
an enduring concern for establishing and maintaining interpersonal connections
- application (presidents):
need for power
An enduring concern for having impact on the social world
- application (presidents):
developed the life story approach to identity
life story approach
centers on the idea that each of us has a unique life story, full of ups and downs. our life story represents our memories of what makes us who we are. our life story is our identity
enduring concern for warm interpersonal encounters for their own sake
a means of inquiry in which the personality psychologist attempts to apply a personality theory to a single persons life
behavioralist - social cognitive theory (Behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are all linked)
- associated with observational learning
banduras term to describe the way behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors interact to create personality.
control our own behavior
interal locus of control
sense of behavioral control as coming from inside the person
external locus of control
behavioral control coming from outside the person
social cognitive theory- situationism, cross-situationalism etc......
situationalism - personality varies considerably from one context to another (impacted by family influence, genetics, current environment, etc.)
person should behave consistently in different situations (Mischel)
- a person looks at each situation and responds accordingly
mischels view- the idea that personality and behavior often vary considerably from one context to another
Mischels theoretical model for describing that our thoughts and emotions about ourselves and the world affect our behavior and become linked in ways that matter to behavior
the father of medicine, described human beings as having one of four basic personalities based on levels of particular bodily fluids
developed an approach to extraversion/introversion based on reticular activation system (RAS)
reticular activation system (RAS)
Extraverts and introverts differ with respect to the baseline level of arousal
-extraverts wake up under aroused and spend the day looking for more stimulation
-introverts wake up over aroused and do not seek more arousal throughout the day
reinforcement sensitivity theory
Gray posited that two neurological systems -BAS and BIS- could be viewed as underlying personality.
proposed a neuropsychology of personality, called reinforcement sensitivity
- interested in amygdala and how damage to one's amygdala can effect personality
behavioral activation system (BAS)
-sensitive to: environmental reward
-Behavior: seek positive rewards/consequences
Personality trait: extraversion
behavioral inhibition system (BIS)
-Sensitive to: environmental punishment
-Behavior: avoid negative punishments/punishments
-Personality trait: Neuroticism
dopamine (on personality)
"Feel Good" neurotransmitter vital to learning that certain behaviors are rewarding and sending the message to "Do it again" related to extraversion
serotonin (on personality)
Related to neuroticism - individuals who have less circulating serotonin are prone to negative moods, it is also implicated in aggressive behavior
heritablity of personality
- approximately 50 percent for the 5 factors
when motivated individuals will say what they think the researcher wants to hear or what they think will make them look better
Neuroticism Extraversion Openess Personality Inventory--Revised (NEO-PI-R)
the tendency to accept certain information as true, such as character assessments or horoscopes, even when the information is so vague as to be worthless.
the tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one's existing beliefs or theories.
Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. A test is considered reliable if we get the same result repeatedly
Validity is the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure. It is vital for a test to be valid in order for the results to be accurately applied and interpreted.
psychodynamic approach (on personality)
personality is characterized by unconscious processes. childhood experiences are of great importance to adult personality
humanistic appraoch (on personality)
personality evolves out of the persons innate, organismic motives to grow and actualize the self. these healthy tendencies can be undetermined by social pressure.
trait perspective (on personality)
personality is characterized by five general traits that are represented in the natural language that people use to describe themselves and others
- most likely to use a self-report test
personological and life story (on personality)
to understand personality we must understand the whole person. we all have unique life experiences and the stories we tell about those experiences make up our identities
social cognitive (on personality)
- personality is the pattern of coherence that characterizes a persons interactions with the situations he or she encounters in life. The individuals beliefs and expectations rather than global traits, are the central variables of interest.
- application: explains why people behave differently in different situations
biological (on personality)
personality characteristics reflect underlying biological processes such as those carried out by the brain, neurotransmitters, and genes. differences in behaviors, thoughts, and feelings depend on these processes.
individuals were told they had been chosen for the study because they had great potential to quit smoking - more likely to have quit smoking than the other conditions
participated in the program but were told they were randomly chosen for the study
no-treatment control condition
individuals did not participate in the program
Factor linked to positive functioning and adjustment - expectancy that good things are more likely to occur in the future
Type A behavior pattern
A cluster of characteristics - such as being excessively competitive, hard driven, impatient, and hostile - related to the incidence of heart disease
Type B behavior pattern
A cluster of characteristics - such as being relaxed and easygoing - related to good health
A persons assessment of his or her own level of positive affect relative to negative affect, and the individuals evaluation of his or her life in general
conditions of worth
- application: joining the football team to please father
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