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Four stages: Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption, Egestion


Functions: Helps position food in mouth; roll food into bolus; mixes food with saliva, has taste buds

Salivary Glands

Produce saliva which contains amylase.


Enzyme for digesting starches into disaccharides. Hint: found in saliva.


Leads from pharynx to stomach. covered with mucus along inner surface. composed of circular and longitudinal muscles. Pushes food down through peristalsis.

LES (Lower Esophageal Sphincter)

control entrance of food into stomach.

Stomach (first part)

pH of 2-3. Inner wall folded into ridges called RUGAE (to increase surface area). Has about 40 mil cells lining interior. secrets 2-3 L of gastric juice/day.

Gastric juice

Contains HCl pepsinogen, mucus and gastrin. Hint hint.


Breaks down proteins proteins into long chain polypeptide. Activated form of pepsinogen (activated by HCl, inactivated by HCO3- ions).


Partly broken down food


an enzyme that coagulates milk proteins in the stomach (to permit more time to digest milk)


Hormone that increases gastric secretions when partially digested proteins appear in the stomach or when the stomach distends.

Pyloric Sphincter

Control food's entry into small intestine. _______ sphincter.

Small intestine

Food passes from stomach into this. Site of absorption as well as a majority of digestion. About 5.5 to 6 meters long and attached to rear of abdomen by membrane called mesentary.


Makes up first 25-30 cm of small intestine. Hint: comes before jejunum; and ileum. This part of intestine operates at pH of about 9.0.


released when acidic materials enter the small intestine. Stimulates pancreas to release HCO3- ions (bicarbonate ions). Heavily stimulated to be released by high acidity in chyme.

Gastric Inhibitory Peptide; GIP; Enterogastrone

Inhibits gastric secretions; slows motility in the stomach. Most strongly stimulated to be released with a high fat content in chyme; enables fatty meals to remain in stomach longer than non-fatty meals


Converts peptones (short chain peptides) into amino acids. Produced in the duodenum and pancreas.


Convert disaccharides into monosaccharides. Produced in the duodenum.


Activates trypsin from pancreas. Converts trypsinogen into trypsin. Produced in the duodenum.


To increase the surface area in the stomach, the small intestine is folded into _________;


Villi have cell membranes that have finger-like projections called _____

Lacteals (lymph vessels)

Absorb fatty acids/ and glycerol.

Capillary network

Absorb monosaccharides and amino acids.

CCK (cholecystokinin)

Form the small intestine (when fats are present). Stimulates increased pancreatic secretions of digestive enzymes and gall bladder contractions.

Gall bladder

Stores and injects bile into the duodenum.


Physically, digests fats to increase surface area for lipases to act on chemically.


Produce trypsinogen Erepsin, Amylase and Lipases.


Produce bile to emulsify fats Stores glycogen; detoxify blood; deaminates proteins; stores vitamins A, D, B12; manufactures proteins for blood clotting and vitamins.

Large Intestine

Site of Reabsorption.


Stores solid waste (feces).


Last part of the large intestine. Cancer of this part is caused by prolonged storage of waste.When contacted by waste, it has receptors that initiate bowel movement.

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