47 terms

Lifeguarding Course

STUDY
PLAY
FIND
F: figure out the problem
I: identify possible solutions
N: name pros and cons of each solution
D: decide which solution is best, and act on it
negligence
when a person is injured or suffers additional harm because the lifeguard failed to follow the standard of care or act at all
duty to act
responsibility to act at an emergency
standard of care
you are expected to meet the minimum standard of care when acting on an emergency
abandonment
once you start helping someone, you have to continue until the EMS or someone with greater training takes over
confidentiality
victims have rights to their medical information, so if they share something with you, you are not allowed to share that information with anyone
documentation
make sure you write down everything that happens in a save so you are not held liable later
consent
you have to state you name, level of training, ask if they want help, explain you want to and what you plan to do, and they will respond yes or no
refusal of care
if they refuse care and it's life-threatening, you call EMS, but if it's not life-threatening, you need to make it clear you aren't denying care or abandoning the victim so later on they can't say you didn't help them
*you have to document any refusal of care
*person who refused must sign this document, if they refuse, note that on the document as well
teamwork
lifeguard team and safety team
lifeguard team
where two or more lifeguards are on duty at a time
- work together
- effective communication
activates EAP
safety team
backs up the lifeguard team when the EAP is initiated
(could be EMS, people that don't work at facility and are offsite)
primary responsibilities
- watching pool
- preventing injuries
- enforcing facility rules and regulations
- recognizing and responding quickly to all emergencies
secondary responsibilities
- testing pool water chemistry
- cleaning/performing maintenance
- completing records or reports
- opening and closing the pool
- helping patrons with lifeguards, questions
good samaritan laws
if you fail to meet the standard of care, you are covered by these laws
*check with your facility to make sure how much you are covered
equipment you carry
- rescue tube
- hip pack
facility safety checks
primary tool used by the staff to ensure overall safety of facility, administered by lifeguards/staff
- should be done before facility opens and after closing
- physical inspection, if something isn't working, block off or fix it
thunder/lighting
clear everyone from pool, move them to a shelter (keep them away from trees and tall structures, stay low to ground)
*30 minutes until people can return to pool after hearing or seeing lightning/thunder
rules and regulations
every facility has their own rules, but common ones, it's your responsibility to know AND understand them
management
responsible for EAP, address all unsafe conditions, comply with state and federal laws, maintain records, make sure first aid is available
material safety data sheet
MSDS, contains all chemical info of the pool and the management must have a book that contains this
*if an injury's due to chemicals, the chemicals are in the book so you can tell EMS about it
effective surveillance
- you recognize dangerous behaviors
- victim recognition
- effective scanning
- zone of surveillance responsibility
- lifeguard stations
dangerous behaviors
- child bobbing in water
- small child crawling on edge towards deep water
- toddler left unattended
- child wearing improperly fit lifejacket
- victim experiencing medical emergency
- patron clinging to object to stay afloat
victim recognition
it is essential to recognize someone struggling in water
- matter of seconds between someone struggling @ surface and someone below at the bottom, passively drowning
*lifeguards should be able to recognize and respond to a drowning victims within 30 seconds
distressed swimmer
- not yet a drowning victim, but can quickly become one
- isn't able to move forward, but might be able to keep their face above water and call/wave for help
- can be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal depending on how they support themselves
- generally able to reach for a rescue tube
active drowning victim
- can't call for help because trying to get oxygen
- head tilted back because they are trying to breathe
- arms extended to side or pressing down
- vertical in water, not kicking
- young child: might be horizontal due to their anatomy
- might continue to struggle while underwater but will lose consciousness eventually
- 20 to 60 seconds: how long they can struggle @ surface
instinctive drowning response
a universal set of behaviors exhibited by an active drowning victim; trying to keep the face above water, flapping arms to maintain position, no forward progress, only stay on the surface for 20-60 seconds
*what an active drowning victim looks like
passive drowning victim
- no struggle
- float facedown
- hard to recognize but if they are acting this way for 30 seconds, you need to respond immediately
- not breathing, passed out, can't call for help
specific behaviors when surveying
- breathing
- appearance or facial expression
- arm and leg position
- head and body position
- locomotion/movement
scanning
visual technique for watching patrons in the water
- important to move head, not just eyes
- notice each person in your zone, not only in pool but also on deck
- know entire volume (bottom, middle, surface)
- active and ready posture
- important to change body positions to stay alert
scanning challenges
- monotony
- fatigue
- distractions
- blind spots
- glare
- murky water
- heavy patron loads
- low patron loads
- high temperature
zone coverage
your swimming area is often divided to one guard per zone
- overlapping in zones
- both guards are responsible for overlap
- first guard to notice a victim activates the EAP
ground level stations
- shallow water play areas
- end of slides
- winding rivers
- you are closer to patrons, easier to get distracted
elevated stations
- minimize glare
- important to know how to safely exit the stand for emergency and rotation
roving station
- waking surveillance at ground level
- at same time, someone at an elevated station
- you can't only have a person at a roving station covering their zone
floating station
at waterfront swimming areas
stride jump
water has to be at least 5 feet deep and you are no more than 3 feet above the water
compact jump
when you are on deck or at a height, water must be 5 feet deep
run and swim entry
gradual slope, run with high knees and when you can't run you swim to victim
slide in
when you suspect a head, neck, or spine injury or when the pool is crowded or not deep enough (not 5 feet)
approaches
- always have rescue tube under torso
- never take eyes off victim
drowning
- begins when water enters victim's airway
- involuntary breathe holding occurs
- sudden closure of windpipe
- once windpipe closes, air can't reach the lungs
- victim can't breathe but can still swallow large amounts of water in the stomach
- as oxygen levels are reduced and closing of windpipe subsides, the victim can gasp for air but instead inhales water in his lungs
laryngospasm
sudden closure of larynx or windpipe
cardiac arrest
can occur as little as three minutes after submerging
brain damage/death
can occur in as little as 4-6 minutes
ventilations
if you give ventilations within one to two minutes of submersion, you can possible save the victim's life
agonal gasps
isolated/infrequent gasping when unconscious, not breathing (even though they have these gasps)
*a few minutes can be the difference between life or death