20 terms

Altered States of Consciousness

Review for Psychology
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Sleep
A transient, reversible, and periodic state of rest in which there is a decrease in physical activity and consciousness.
Stages of Sleep
stage 1 - brain waves small and irregular, feel yourself drifting on the edge of consciousness; stage 2 - short bursts of rapid, high peaking waves called sleep spindles, minor noises won't disturb you; stage 3 - stage 2 waves and delta waves, very slow with high peaks, breathing and pulse are slowed, muscles relaxed, and hard to rouse; stage 4 - delta waves prevalent, deep sleep, difficult to rouse.
REM Sleep
Rapid Eye Movement. Intense brain activity. Paralysis of large muscles, fast and irregular heart beat+ respiration rates + increased brain wave activity + vivid dreams.
Stage 4 Sleep
deep sleep, and it is very difficult to wake someone, the brain produces delta waves almost exclusively, there is no eye movement or muscle activity. This is when some children experience bedwetting, sleepwalking or night terrors.
Sleep Apnea
A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
Narcolepsy
A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
Sleep Terrors
A sleep disturbance characterized by an episode of increased physiological arousal, intense fear and panic, frightening hallucinations, and no recall of the episode the next morning. It typically occurs during stage 3 or stage 4 NREM sleep. Also called night terrors.
Sleep Walking
Stage 4 disorder which is usually harmless and unrecalled the next day. Sleepwalkers are not acting out a dream.
Insomnia
A condition in which a person regularly experiences an inability to fall asleep, to stay asleep, or to feel adequately rested by sleep.
Sleep Deprivation
Any significant loss of sleep, resulting in problems in concentration and irritability
Hypersomnia
A sleep disorder which involves excessive sleepiness
Dream
A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.
Sigmund Freud
A psychologist who developed psychoanalysis. Believed strongly that unconscious drives and desires guided people's actions.
Carl Jung
1875-1961; Field: neo-Freudian, analytic psychology; Contributions: people had conscious and unconscious awareness; archetypes; collective unconscious; libido is all types of energy, not just sexual; Studies: dream studies/interpretation
Nightmare
Anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep
Lucid Dream
Awareness that a dream is a dream while it is happening
Hypnosis
A deep state of relaxation where an individual is more susceptible to suggestions.
Posthypnotic suggestion
A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.
Hallucination
False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
Sensory Deprivation
a decrease in or lack of meaningful stimuli, person usually experiences alterations in perception, cognition, and emotion
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