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In attempting to establish a reconstruction policy after the Civil War,

Congress and the president disagreed about who had the authority to devise a plan of reconstruction.

Pardons granted to rebel soldiers under the terms of Lincoln's Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction were important in that they

restored property (except slaves) and political participation.

Members of Congress hoped Lincoln would not veto the Wade-Davis Bill because they wanted to

guarantee freedmen equal protection before the law.

Ex-slaves believed that ownership of land

was a moral right and was linked to their freedom.

"Sherman land" and the establishment of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands

created an expectation among ex-slaves that they would become independent citizens and landowners.

Following emancipation, many ex-slaves aspired to

reunite family members sold away.

Some ex-slaves who had formerly worshiped in biracial Methodist churches joined the African Methodist Episcopal Church, an all-black church from the North, because

they wanted religious autonomy and escape from white oversight.

Reformers were shocked by President Andrew Johnson's quick reconstruction of ex-Confederate states because

his reconstruction plan seemed to contradict earlier statements in which he claimed a willingness to destroy the southern planter aristocracy.

Although Andrew Johnson had left the Democratic Party before becoming president, he seemed more a Democrat than a Republican as president because

he advocated states' rights and limitations on federal power, especially in the economic realm.

Abraham Lincoln's and Andrew Johnson's reconstruction plans both promised reconciliation and the rapid restoration of civil government in the South; they also shared an emphasis on

pardons for most former rebel soldiers and ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment.

During the Reconstruction era, southern black codes

restricted freedmen's economic opportunities and civil rights.

The black codes were essentially an attempt to

subordinate blacks to whites and regulate the labor supply.

The Civil Rights Act of 1866

made discrimination in state laws illegal.

The Fourteenth Amendment dealt with voting rights for blacks by

giving Congress the right to reduce a state's representation in that body if the state refused to give all of its adult male population, including ex-slaves, the right to vote.

The voting rights provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment proved a major disappointment to

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and other advocates of female suffrage.

The impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson

effectively ended Johnson's interference in reconstruction.

The Fifteenth Amendment

extended black male suffrage to the entire nation.

The constitutional amendment that prohibited states from depriving citizens of the right to vote on the basis of their "race, color, or previous condition of servitude"

was undermined by literacy and property qualifications in southern states.

The Ku Klux Klan developed into a paramilitary organization, but it began as

a social club for Confederate veterans who wanted to restore white supremacy.

As new constitutions were ratified in the South in the late 1860s, local and state Republican governments focused on

public education, the defense of civil rights, the abolition of racial discrimination, and the creation of a diversified economy.

The system of agricultural labor that emerged after 1865 often pitted ex-slaves and their expectations for freedom against former slave masters who wanted to restore the plantation system. In this struggle,

ex-slaves could decide who would work, for how long, and how hard, but still remained dependent

The system under which farmers rented small pieces of land, paid their rent with a portion of their crops, and were provided mules and tools by their landlord was known as


President Ulysses S. Grant's administration saw

corruption at all levels of government, a severe economic depression, labor violence, and an attempt to annex Santo Domingo to provide the freedmen with a new home.

When southern Republicans pleaded with Congress for federal protection from the racism and violence of the Ku Klux Klan, Congress

responded by passing the Ku Klux Klan Act and the Civil Rights Act of 1875

Supreme Court decisions in the years following the Civil War largely

undermined reconstruction.

In the Slaughterhouse cases (1873) and in United States v. Cruikshank (1876), the Supreme Court

restricted the ability of the federal government and Congress to protect individuals from discrimination by other individuals.

By the early 1870s, the congressional reconstruction goals of 1866

had been mostly abandoned by Northerners.

Redeemers were

southern Democrats who wanted to restore white supremacy in the South.

By the early 1870s, Democrats had adopted a two-pronged strategy to defeat the Republicans. That strategy consisted of

polarizing the political parties on the issue of color and relentlessly intimidating black voters.

In the presidential election of 1876,

the Democratic candidate won the popular vote but fell one vote short of victory in the electoral college, while the Republican candidate initially fell nineteen electoral votes short of victory.

In the Compromise of 1877,

southern Democrats accepted a Republican president in exchange for federal subsidies and the removal of federal troops from the South.

The Compromise of 1877 essentially

spelled the end of reconstruction and of the Republicans' commitment to the civil rights of blacks.

Congressional reconstruction did not meet all of its goals, but among those it did meet were

the legacy of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments, and the Civil Rights Act of 1875.

By the end of the Indian Wars, the Native American population in the continental United States had

fallen to 250,000 from an estimated 15 million at the time of first contact with Europeans.

Under the "outing system"

Indian children were forced to live with white families over summer vacation.

The Indian wars on the Great Plains were

wars that began when Euroamerican settlers ran over Native American lands.

General William Tecumseh Sherman summed up the U.S. government's policy toward Native Americans when he wrote:

"Remove all to a safe place and then reduce them to a helpless condition."

The Treaty of Fort Laramie

was violated by the U.S. government after gold was discovered in the Black Hills.

The Dawes Allotment Act (1887)

broke up reservations and assigned individual pieces of land to Native Americans.

Geronimo was

an Apache warrior and chieftain who led raiding parties and killed ranchers on both sides of the Mexican border.

The Ghost Dance

was a religious ritual that was suppose to resurrect fallen warriors and rid the Indians of white intruders.

The U.S. army gunned down unarmed Sioux at Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota, in 1890 primarily because

the soldiers feared an uprising provoked by a militant interpretation of the Ghost Dance religion.

The Comstock Lode was

the richest vein of silver ore found on the North American continent.

The easiest way to get rich in the silver mining industry proved to be

selling claims to land or forming mining companies and selling stock.

The wealth produced in the Nevada mining industry primarily

enriched speculators in San Francisco and other cities.

Although the Chinese were thought to be hard workers, anti-Chinese prejudice prevented them from working

in the mines

Virginia City, Nevada, and other mining centers can best be described as

sprawling industrialized communities.

Between 1860 and 1880, the population of Californios (Mexican residents of California)

fell by more than 60 percent.

Of the workforce that built America's first transcontinental railroad, Chinese laborers made up

90 percent

The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

had led to a sharp decline in the Chinese population of the American West by 1900.

In the three decades after 1870, hundreds of thousands of Americans migrated to the West to

own their own land.

Compared to the mining West, life in the agrarian West was

equally speculative and exploitative.

The Homestead Act of 1862 promised

160 acres free to any citizen or prospective citizen who settled on land west of the Mississippi River for five years.

Between 1870 and 1900, the trans-Mississippi West

increasingly saw family farms give way to commercial farming.

Women on the frontier

were forced to work hard at even the simplest tasks.

To encourage railroad construction in the decades after the Civil War, state and federal governments

gave railroad companies 180 million acres of public land.

The invention of barbed wire revolutionized the cattle industry by

making it possible for ranchers to fence in their cattle.

African American cowboys in the West were

ignored by the popular fiction of the time, despite their substantial presence in the region.

The term "Exodusters" refers to

the freed African-Americans who moved west and settled in Kansas.

Between 1870 and 1900, the proportion of those who lived on farms in the United States fell from 80 percent to 66 percent. Yet this period witnessed

the growth of agriculture through commercialization and expanding urban markets.

Henry Miller and Charles Lux can best be described as

the Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller of the far West.

By the late nineteenth century, farmers were no longer the self-sufficient yeomen anchoring the Republic described by

Thomas Jefferson

The proliferation of dime novels and outfits like William F. Cody's Wild West Company

mythologized and romanticized life in the Old West.

The Gilded Age can be described as

an era marked by personal greed and a corrupt partnership between business and politics.

A key factor in the rise of the Gilded Age was

the growth of industrialism in the United States.

In the second half of the nineteenth century, American life came to be dominated by the country's first big business,


Railroad construction in nineteenth-century America was boosted significantly by

monetary aid and land grants from federal and state governments.

Vertical integration

places all aspects of the business, from mining raw materials to marketing and transporting finished products, under the control of the chief operating officer.

Carnegie Steel achieved the tremendous productivity that Andrew Carnegie insisted on by

forcing employees to work long hours under extremely dangerous conditions for low pay.

Before the advent of the automobile, crude oil was used mainly

for lubrication and lighting in the form of kerosene.

John D. Rockefeller organized Standard Oil as a trust. That decision was made to

control the key elements of production and so corner the market for oil.

By the 1890s, Standard Oil

had employed both horizontal and vertical integration to control more than 90 percent of the oil business.

Ida M. Tarbell's "History of the Standard Oil Company" in McClure's Magazine depicted John D. Rockefeller as

a ruthless, unscrupulous malefactor who had used practically every dirty trick in the corporate book to gain control of the oil industry.

Alexander Graham Bell

used a complicated organizational structure in his new company that allowed both local and cross-country communication.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, electricity

was utilized mostly in urban areas of the United States.

Prominent business leaders of the late nineteenth century, such as J. P. Morgan,

despised competition and tried to substitute consolidation and central control whenever they could.

To achieve his stunning reorganization and consolidation of businesses in the late nineteenth century, J. P. Morgan

at times formed "a community of interest," comprised of a few handpicked directors.

Railroad companies controlled by J. P. Morgan sometimes issued watered stock, a practice that

kept investors happy but caused overcapitalization and debt for the railroads.

J. P. Morgan acquired the core of what would be the largest corporation in the world when he purchased

steel interests formerly controlled by Andrew Carnegie.

The Supreme Court used a novel interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment to help big business near the end of the nineteenth century. The Court did this by

elevating property rights over all other rights.

After Reconstruction, the term solid South referred to

the states of the old Confederacy, which voted Democratic in every election for the next seventy years.

In the late nineteenth century, the notion that black men were a threat to white women in the South contributed significantly to

an increase in lynchings across the South.

Denied the right to vote during in the late nineteenth century, American women

found ways to affect the political process though the antilynching, suffrage, and temperance movements.

The presidents who served in the last part of the nineteenth century—Rutherford B. Hayes through William McKinley—

were overshadowed by business development and party politics at state and local levels.

In the last decades of the nineteenth century, national politics in the United States was dominated by

dynamic party bosses.

The Republican Party chose Ohioan James A. Garfield as its presidential candidate in 1880 because of his affiliation with

None of the above

The Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 established the Civil Service Commission and

made it impossible to remove people in civil service jobs for political reasons.

The president who lost the election at the end of his first term and was re-elected to a second term four years later was

Grover Cleveland

By the 1880s, the tariff posed a threat to America's prosperity because

it created a surplus that was not used to produce goods and services.

The Supreme Court's decision in Wabash v. Illinois (1886), which reversed its ruling in Munn v. Illinois (1877),

led to passage of the first federal law regulating the railroad industry.

The Interstate Commerce Commission, the nation's first federal regulatory agency,

was so weak in its early years that it served as little more than a historical precedent

Both the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act

testified to the nation's growing willingness to use federal measures to intervene in big business on behalf of the public interest.

During the economic depression in the winter of 1894-95, president Grover Cleveland hoped to increase the nation's flagging gold reserves by

making a deal with a private group of bankers, headed by J. P. Morgan, to purchase gold abroad and supply it to the government.

At the end of the nineteenth century, the Brooklyn Bridge stood as a symbol of

the ascendancy of urban America.

Significant urban growth in the late nineteenth century meant that by 1900, more than one million people were living in

New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia.

The astonishing growth in urban population between 1870 and 1900 was largely the product of

the movement of people into cities from other areas of the country and from abroad.

The world economy at the turn of the twentieth century can best be described as

an industrial core, an agricultural domain, and a third world tied to the industrial core by economic colonialism.

In the 1870s, U.S. industrialists hired cheap labor from around the world because

railroad expansion and low steamship fares enabled immigrants to flock to America.

By 1900, the majority of immigrants to the United States

lived in cities because jobs were available there and because they did not have the money to buy land.

Technological advances and mechanization allowed U.S. industrialists to

replace skilled laborers with lower-paid unskilled laborers from southern and eastern Europe.

Racism in late-nineteenth-century America was most evident in

violence toward blacks and the economic scapegoating of Asians on the West Coast.

Southern blacks migrated to northern cities in the 1890s

for economic opportunities and safety.

Congress approved a literacy test for immigrants in 1896

as a means of limiting the influx of "backward" people into the country.

The transportation innovation that first allowed late-nineteenth-century cities to expand to the suburbs was


In his best-selling How the Other Half Lives (1890), Jacob Riis

forced middle-class Americans to acknowledge the degraded reality of the poor.

The backbone of the American labor force throughout the nineteenth century was

common laborers

The U.S. garment industry began to change in the 1850s as

independent tailors were replaced by sweatshop workers.

Leading up to World War I, the percentage of children under fifteen engaged in paid labor

increased decade by decade.

In the late nineteenth century, married black women often supplemented their family income by working

outside the home as domestics.

The advent of the adding machine, typewriter, and cash register had the greatest impact on

literate white women.

By the end of the nineteenth century, most white native-born women who worked held jobs

in offices

The opening of department stores in the late nineteenth century went hand in hand with

a new consumer culture and the material promise of the times.

The main lesson workers learned from the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was that

they had little power individually, but could perhaps gain power if they joined a union.

The Knights of Labor

was the first large-scale organization for American workers.

During the 1880s, the Knights of Labor advocated for

public ownership of the railroads, an income tax, equal pay for women, and the abolition of child labor.

Samuel Gompers, the founder of the American Federation of Labor,

focused on higher pay and better working conditions.

The Haymarket affair of 1886

began as a rally of laborers organized by radicals.

One outcome of the Haymarket affair was

that many skilled workers turned from the radicals to the American Federation of Labor.

By 1870, the live-in servant in the North

was enabling middle-class white women to explore opportunities outside the home.

Working-class courtship rituals in urban, industrial America

shifted from family-arranged arrangements to informal meetings at the dance halls and other commercial retreats.

Beginning in the 1870s, American men of all classes were united in their passion for


In the late 1800s, Coney Island symbolized the

rise of mass entertainment in America.

The modern skyscraper emerged in the 1890s primarily as a consequence of the

advent of structural steel.

New York City's Central Park was planned as

a retreat from the bustle of the city.

Two key elements of the public school system in American cities were

free tuition and open access to all children.

By the end of the nineteenth century, American libraries

made up the most extensive free public-library system in the world.

In the post-Civil War era, the city boss

oversaw the building of the city and provided social services for new residents

By the turn of the twentieth century, most big-city governments were run

more by compromise and the accommodation of powerful political forces than by boss rule.

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