Create an account
7 possible etiologies of metabolic acidosis with elevated anion gap
Methanol ingestion, Uremia, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Propylene glycol ingestion, Ischemia with lactic acidosis, Ethylene glycol ingestion, Salicylate intoxication (MUDPIES)
6 possible etiologies of metabolic acidosis with a normal anion gap
Hyperalimentation, Acetazolamide, Renal tubular acidosis, Diarrhea, Ureterosigmoidostomy, and Pancreatic fistula (HARDUP)
Metabolic acidosis compensation rule
pCO₂decreases by 1-1.5 mmHg below normal (40 mmHg) for every 1 mEq/L decrease in HCO₃below normal (24 mEq/L)
In order for metabolic alkalosis to be chloride resistant, it must have a urine chloride of _________.
In order for metabolic alkalosis to be chloride sensitive, it must have a urine chloride of ___________.
Etiologies of chloride resistant metabolic alkalosis
Excessive mineralocorticoid activity, Hyperaldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, Bartter's syndrome, Severe potassium depletion
Etiologies of choride sensitive metabolic alkalosis
GI disorders, diuretic therapy, cystic fibrosis, correction of chronic hypercapnia
Metabolic alkalosis compensation rule
pCO₂increases by 0.6-0.7 mmHg above normal (40 mmHg) for every 1 mEq/L increase in HCO₃above normal (24 mEq/L)
Etiologies of Acute respiratory acidosis
Impaired perfusion, impaired ventilation, CNS depression, spinal cord injury
Etiologies of Chronic respiratory acidosis
impaired ventilation, muscular problems, strokes, tumors, MS
Acutely compensated respiratory acidosis rule
HCO₃increases by 1 mEq/L above normal (24 mEq/L) for every 10 mmHg increase in pCO₂above normal (40 mmHg)
Chronically compensated respiratory acidosis rule
HCO₃increases by 4 mEq/L above normal (24 mEq/L) for every 10 mmHg increase in pCO₂above normal (40 mmHg)
Etiologies of respiratory alkalosis
hypotension, stroke, head trauma, pulmonary embolism, congestive heart failure, pneumonia, physical increase in ventilation, medications (salicylates, nicotine, catecholamines)
Clinical manifestations of respiratory alkalosis
lightheadedness, confusion, nausea, vomitting, arrythmias, slight increase in potassium
Acutely compensated respiratory alkalosis rule
HCO₃decreases by 2-3 mEq/L below normal (24 mEq/L) for every 10 mmHg decrease in pCO₂below normal (40 mmHg)
Chronically compensated respiratory alkalosis rule
HCO₃decreases by 5 mEq/L below normal (24 mEq/L) for every 10 mmHg decrease in pCO₂below normal (40 mmHg)
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together