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67 terms

Unit 1

STUDY
PLAY
anthropology
study of mankind; the comprehensive and comparative study of past and present human populations and their origins
physical anthropology
origins and variations of the human species
paleo-anthropology
studies human macro-evolution
macro-evolution
development of one species from a different species through natural selection
micro-evolution
development within species through an evolutionary process (natural selection)
natural selection
the ability to reproduce under variant conditions
primatology
study of primates compared to humans
forensic anthropology
the application of anthropology to solving questions of death and crime
archaeology anthropology
study of remains of past culture
linguistics anthropology
the study of human language, not foreign languages
ethnology
the analysis and explanation of social and cultural similarities and differences; the explanation of cultures
ethnography
a detailed description of a single culture; of every major aspect of that culture
ethnopharmocology
a people's use of drugs
ethnoscience
the science of a people
diagnostic and statistical manual
DSM
comparativism
belief that you cannot understand any culture well without understanding others; you can't understand them in isolation; you have to compare
holism
the idea that the study of any culture should be thoroughly integrated - how does everything affect everything else
cultural relativism
the belief that there really are no true moral absolutes; you can only judge the moral beliefs of a culture by that culture
cultural determinism
the belief that biology doesn't really matter in explaining cultural variation; culture has to be explained by culture
formal rules
written down, explicit
informal rules
generally understood (guides most of human behavior)
roles
rights and duties and prescribed behaviors associated with particular social positions
values
ideals, good, desirable
presuppositions
"taken-for-granteds," assumptions
worldview
a grid that we use to make sense of and explain reality
symbols
we understand the meaning of these because we were taught the meaning
signals
we understand the meaning of these because the meaning is instinctual
epidemiology
originally started as the study of epidemics, then branched out to diseases, etc.; studies frequency and distribution of disease
epidemics
new cases of a particular disease appear at a rate that is much higher than normal
analytic epidemiology
deals with cause and effect relationships; classify population by diseases and by attributes that which could influence these diseases
experimental epidemiology
epidemiology that focuses on experimentation
descriptive epidemiology
epidemiology that looks for relationships, tries to come up with what could be causing these diseases
sickness
has to do with cultural perception and reaction toward something
disease
the actual physical pathology that can be measured in a lab
illness
perceptual; heavily influenced by culture and social realities
medical ecology
focuses on health and illness and how people need to survive
energy
a key problem/focus area in medical ecology
critical approch of anthropology
focuses on inequality & its effects; more emphasis on political and economic factors
cultural approach of anthropology
focuses most heavily on cultural realities; heavy use of participant observation research
census
data involves whole population
sample
data involves subset of a population; usually representative of the population that we are interested in
niche
an ecological place that a particular occupation is going to occupy
carrying capacity
how much of a particular species can a particular ecological location support
symbiosis
ongoing, regular relationship between species where there is some kind of benefit
parasitism
one species benefits to the detriment of the other
mutualism
both species benefit
commensalism
one is benefitted, and the other is neither helped nor harmed
endemic
disease exists in a population at a fairly constant level
pandemic
an endemic of worldwide proportions
prevalence
the total number of diseased people in existence at a given point of time
incidence
the number of new cases that appear within a given period of time
morbidity
refers to prevalence and/or incidence
mortality
refers to death
etiology
looks for causes of illnesses
natural selection
certain traits are favored in different environments - those with the traits pass it on to future generations
selective migration
people moving in logical ways
mal-adaptations
may be bad for individuals but may help the population as a whole to survive
physiological plasticity
adjustments that occur in a lifetime of an individual
Bergmann's rule
surface area & temperature; surface relative to mass
Allen's rule
applies Bergmann's rule to limb length
hot torsos
because of way fat is distributed hold heat in torso when it is cold; live in warm area most of the time, but when it is cold, it's cold
phenomelanin
reds to yellows
eumelanin
dark brown to black
Baldwin effect
the ability to learn something can be genetically transmitted
genotype
what genes have in them
phenotype
what is actually physically expressed
founder's effect
traced back to one couple, and one of the people of the couple had disease; chance