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study of mankind; the comprehensive and comparative study of past and present human populations and their origins

physical anthropology

origins and variations of the human species


studies human macro-evolution


development of one species from a different species through natural selection


development within species through an evolutionary process (natural selection)

natural selection

the ability to reproduce under variant conditions


study of primates compared to humans

forensic anthropology

the application of anthropology to solving questions of death and crime

archaeology anthropology

study of remains of past culture

linguistics anthropology

the study of human language, not foreign languages


the analysis and explanation of social and cultural similarities and differences; the explanation of cultures


a detailed description of a single culture; of every major aspect of that culture


a people's use of drugs


the science of a people

diagnostic and statistical manual



belief that you cannot understand any culture well without understanding others; you can't understand them in isolation; you have to compare


the idea that the study of any culture should be thoroughly integrated - how does everything affect everything else

cultural relativism

the belief that there really are no true moral absolutes; you can only judge the moral beliefs of a culture by that culture

cultural determinism

the belief that biology doesn't really matter in explaining cultural variation; culture has to be explained by culture

formal rules

written down, explicit

informal rules

generally understood (guides most of human behavior)


rights and duties and prescribed behaviors associated with particular social positions


ideals, good, desirable


"taken-for-granteds," assumptions


a grid that we use to make sense of and explain reality


we understand the meaning of these because we were taught the meaning


we understand the meaning of these because the meaning is instinctual


originally started as the study of epidemics, then branched out to diseases, etc.; studies frequency and distribution of disease


new cases of a particular disease appear at a rate that is much higher than normal

analytic epidemiology

deals with cause and effect relationships; classify population by diseases and by attributes that which could influence these diseases

experimental epidemiology

epidemiology that focuses on experimentation

descriptive epidemiology

epidemiology that looks for relationships, tries to come up with what could be causing these diseases


has to do with cultural perception and reaction toward something


the actual physical pathology that can be measured in a lab


perceptual; heavily influenced by culture and social realities

medical ecology

focuses on health and illness and how people need to survive


a key problem/focus area in medical ecology

critical approch of anthropology

focuses on inequality & its effects; more emphasis on political and economic factors

cultural approach of anthropology

focuses most heavily on cultural realities; heavy use of participant observation research


data involves whole population


data involves subset of a population; usually representative of the population that we are interested in


an ecological place that a particular occupation is going to occupy

carrying capacity

how much of a particular species can a particular ecological location support


ongoing, regular relationship between species where there is some kind of benefit


one species benefits to the detriment of the other


both species benefit


one is benefitted, and the other is neither helped nor harmed


disease exists in a population at a fairly constant level


an endemic of worldwide proportions


the total number of diseased people in existence at a given point of time


the number of new cases that appear within a given period of time


refers to prevalence and/or incidence


refers to death


looks for causes of illnesses

natural selection

certain traits are favored in different environments - those with the traits pass it on to future generations

selective migration

people moving in logical ways


may be bad for individuals but may help the population as a whole to survive

physiological plasticity

adjustments that occur in a lifetime of an individual

Bergmann's rule

surface area & temperature; surface relative to mass

Allen's rule

applies Bergmann's rule to limb length

hot torsos

because of way fat is distributed hold heat in torso when it is cold; live in warm area most of the time, but when it is cold, it's cold


reds to yellows


dark brown to black

Baldwin effect

the ability to learn something can be genetically transmitted


what genes have in them


what is actually physically expressed

founder's effect

traced back to one couple, and one of the people of the couple had disease; chance

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