Miller and Levine Biology Chapter 15
Terms in this set (57)
Crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms
Continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to maintain the desired characteristics of a line of organisms
Breeders can increase _________ in a population by introducing mutations, which are the ultimate source of biological diversity
Any procedure or methodology that uses biological systems or living organisms to develop or modify either products or processes for specific use. This term is commonly associated with genetic engineering, which is one of many applications.
heritable changes in DNA
drugs that prevent the separation of chromosomes during ________ are useful
A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
PCR Step 1
PCR Step 2
separate DNA into 2 strands
PCR Step 3
primers bind to single strands
PCR Step 4
DNA Polymerase starts copying region between primers. These copies serve as templates to make more copies.
Recombinant DNA Technology
Joining together DNA from two or more sources makes it possible to change the genetic composition of living organisms
Organism that is genetically engineered by inserting recombinant DNA from another organism
genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms
Restriction fragments are removed using _________
Wanted to find a specific gene in a jellyfish that codes for a molecule called green fluorescent protein, or GFP.
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
A chemical reaction between DNA polymerase, free nucleotides, primers, and DNA molecules that produces huge amounts of DNA copies of the DNA molecules in short periods of time.
An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.
___ can produce "synthetic" sequences that can be added to "natural" DNA with enzymes
Circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently of the main chromosomes of bacteria
gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don't
genetically modified organism whose source of new genetic material is a different species
plants are infected with bacteria whose plasmids usually cause tumors in plants. the tumor producing gene is inactivated and the bacterial plasmid insted only introduces the desired donor gene
Animals that contain genes transferred from other animals, usually from a different species
A member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell.
Cloning Step 1
obtain somatic cell from organisms being cloned (obtain egg cell of same species)
Cloning Step 2
remove nucleus from egg, remove nucleus from somatic cell and insert into egg cell
Cloning Step 3
allow time for cell division and then insert embryo into a surrogate mother
Offspring from cloning are identical to
the organism that provided the egg cell
Ideal results of GM Foods
better, less expensive, more nutritious food
less harmful manufacturing process
Recombinant DNA Technology
Source of some of the most important and exciting advances in the prevention and treatment of disease
Analysis of sections of DNA that have little or no known function, but vary widely from one individual to another, in order to identify individuals
GM crops were introduced in
Protein to help prevent insects to destroy plants. Infects the digestive tract of the insect and not of mammals
herbicides and viral infections
GM Crops are resistant to
Animals that have been genetically modified, lean meat, human proteins in milk
___% of milk is GM
antibiotics and growth hormones
_____ are given to GM animals
goats milk can have _____
could be the source of vitamins
could be test subjects for medical research
The intentional insertion, alteration, or deletion of genes within an individual's cells and tissues for the purpose of treating a disease or disorder
Technique used to screen a single sample for a vast range of different nucleotide sequences stimultaneously; it is often used to study gene expression
Process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function
used to identify individuals from samples of blood, sperm, tissue or hair
scientific study of crime scene evidence
never undergoes crossing over
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
passed from mother to child
Ethical Questions of Biotechnology
Do you have exclusive rights to your DNA?
Should you be able to keep genetic information confidential?
Safety of GM foods
no scientific support about concerns, and it seems GM plants are safe to eat
Molecules and DNA sequences can be patented . It is meant to spur discovery and advancements in medicine and industry
1/5 of genetic info patented, in 2008 a law passed saying genomes can't be used against you in hiring or insurance
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (2008)
Act that prohibits discrimination against individuals on the basis of their genetic information in both employment and health care.
Pros of GM foods
more nutritious foods, pest resistant crops, higher crop yields, higher food production, higher nutrition, higher shelf life, down synthetic pesticides
Cons of GM foods
allergens, resistance, loss of genetic diversity, gene transfer, high cost of new seeds each year, crops need to be regionally adapted, no additional labeling