Interactive Scienc Water & Atmosphere Ch 2 Oceans
Terms in this set (48)
The water in the Earth's oceans varies in salinity, temperature, depth
How does the water in the Earth's oceans vary?
the measure of the concentration of salts and ions in ocean water; it affects the temperature and density of water
saltwater freezes at lower temperature and has a higher density than freshwater
Saltwater freezes at a ________ temperature and has a __________ density than freshwater.
As you (descend/rise) through ocean water, the temperature (decreases/increases)
Surface zone, transitions zone, deep zone
Name the three temperature zones in the water column.
The temperature __________ as you travel away from the equator.
In the ocean, pressure increases by 1 bar, the air pressure at sea level, with each 10 meters of depth
In the ocean, pressure increases by _______, the air pressure at sea level, with each ________ of depth
sound navigation and ranging, a major advance in ocean-floor mapping
a volcanic mountain rising from the ocean floor
long chains of mountains on the ocean floor
a gently sloping shallow area that extends outward from the edge of each continent
the steep edge of the continental shelf
A smooth, nearly flat region of the ocean floor covered in thick layers of mud and silt.
long, deep valley on the ocean floor through which old ocean floor sinks back toward the mantle
movement of energy through a body of water
most waves form when wind blowing across the surface transmit their energy to the water. The size of the wave depends on the strength of the wind and on the length of time it blows.
How do waves form and change?
highest part of a wave
distance between crests
number of waves that pass a point in a certain amound of time
lowest part of a wave
vertical distance from the crest to the trough; this factor mostly determines wave energy and strength
Near shore, wave height (increases/decreases) and wavelength (increases/decreases)
a wave that forms far below the ocean surface and is usually caused by an earthquake beneath the ocean floor
the movement of sand along a beach - as the waves slow down, they deposit the sand they are carrying on the shallow, underwater slope, forming a long ridge called a sandbar
a rush of water that flows rapidly back to sea through a narrow opening
by eroding the shore in some places and building it up in others
How do waves shape a beach?
a wall of rocks or concrete built outward from to beach to reduce beach erosion
a large stream of moving water that flows through the oceans, they carry water from one place to another
surface currents affect water to a depth of several hundred meters, driven mainly by winds; surface currents warm or cool the air above it and this affects the climate of land near the coast.
How deep do surface currents affect water? affect the climate of land near the coast?
as earth roates, the paths of winds and currents curve. This effect of Earth's rotation on the direction of winds and currents is called ____________; causes currents to curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
largest and most powerful warm surface current in the Atlantic Ocean in North America
the pattern of temperature and precipitation typical of an area over a long period of time
a climate event that occurs every two to seven years in the Pacific Ocean. When it occurs, unusual wind patterns cause a vast sheet of warm water to move east toward South America.
when surface waters in the eastern Pacific are colder than normal this climate event occurs
deep currents are caused by differences in the density of ocean water. When a surface current moves towards the poles, its water temperature decreases and its salinity increases. The water becomes denser and sinks. Then the cold water flows back along the ocean floor as a deep current.
What causes deep currents?
Deep currents move and mix water around the world. They carry cold water from the poles toward the equator. The pattern looks like a conveyor belt, moving water between the oceans.
Describe how deep currents move and mix water around the world - called thermohaline circulation.
surface currents and deep currents
What are the two main types of ocean currents?
the process by which cold water moves from the ocean depths along some coastlines
the daily turning of the Earth on its axis
the force that causes the tides to rise and fall
low and high tides
the daily rise and fall of water levels on Earth's coastlines
this causes surface currents
period during which high tides are at their highest and low tides are at their lowest; caused by the alignment of the earth-moon-sun system
the period during which low tides and high tides are the closest in heights
the motion of the moon around the earth and the earth around the sun
caused mainly by differences in how much gravity from the moon and the sun pulls on different parts of Earth
What causes tides?
they are all in a direct line
How are Earth, Sun and moon aligned during spring tides?
the Moon is at right angle and off to the side (right or left) but the earth and sun are aligned
How are Earth, Sun and moon aligned during neap tides?