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cell division

The process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells (p. 127).


Threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next; a typical human body cell has 46 of these (p. 126).


One of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome (p. 128).


Area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached (p. 128).

cell cycle

The series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide (p. 129).


Period of the cell cycle between cell divisions (p. 129).

G1 phase

A period during interphase in which cells do most of their growing--increasing in size and synthesizing new proteins and organelles (p. 129).

S phase

Period of time during interphase in which chromosomes are replicated and the synthesis of DNA takes place (p. 129).

G2 phase

Period of time during interphase--usually the shortest--during which many of the organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced (p. 129).

M phase

This part of the cell cycle is divided into four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase (p. 129-131).


During this phase of mitosis the chromosomes become visible, the nucleolus disappears, and the nuclear envelope breaks down (p. 130).


A fanlike microtubule structure that helps to separate the chromosomes (p. 130-131).


During this phase of mitosis the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell (p. 130).


During this phase of mitosis the centromeres split, allowing the chromatids to be pulled to opposite sides of the cell (p. 130).


During this phase of mitosis the chromosomes unwind to form chromatin, a nuclear envelope re-forms around the chromosomes, and a nucleolus becomes visible in each daughter nucleus (p. 131).


The division of the cytoplasm itself; in animal cells the cell membrane is drawn inward to pinch the cytoplasm into two parts while in plants a cell plate forms between the daughter nuclei (p. 131).


Term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent (p. 136).


Term used to describe a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes; represented by the symbol 2N (p. 137).


Term used to describe cells that contain only a single set of chromosomes; represented by the symbol 1N (p. 137).


A process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell (p. 138-139).


Each chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosome to form this structure (p. 138).


When homologous chromosomes form tetrads they may exchange portions of their chromatids; this process helps to increase genetic diversity (p. 142).

polar bodies

Cells produced in the female during meiosis that do not participate in reproduction; these cells are the result of uneven cell division that concentrates the cytoplasm in the egg (p. 543).

prophase I

Each chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosome to form a tetrad during this phase of meiosis (p. 138).

metaphase I

Homologous chromosomes (tetrads) move to the equator of the cell during this phase of meiosis (p. 138).

anaphase I

Spindle fibers pull the homologous chromosomes toward opposite ends of the cell during this phase of meiosis (p. 138).

metaphase II

Single chromosomes made of sister chromatids line up on the equator of the cell during this phase of meiosis (p. 139).

anaphase II

The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell during this phase of meiosis (p. 139).

cytokinesis II

Completes the formation of four haploid daughter cells (p. 139).


Specialized haploid cells involved in reproduction; the term used to describe sperm and egg cells (p. 137).


Process by which gametes are produced in male animals (p. 542).


Process by which gametes are produced in female animals (p. 542).


A mnemonic (memory aid) that can be used to remember the stages of the cell cycle: Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.


The normal diploid number of chromosomes in a typical cell of the human body.


A fertilized egg (p. 137).


The 22 pairs of non-sex chromosomes (p. 137).


A particular place on a chromosome where a gene might be located (p. 137).

somatic cell

A typical, non-sex, body cell (p. 136).

cleavage furrow

A shallow groove in the cell surface of an animal cell at the start of cytokinesis (p. 132).

cell plate

The precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two (p. 132).


Clouds of cytoplasmic material from which spindle microtubules emerge and that in animal cells contain centrioles (p. 131).


A structure of proteins attached to the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle (p. 130).


A general term for the organ that produces gametes.


Combination of DNA and protein molecules, in the form of long, thin fibers, making up the genetic material in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.

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