How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

200 terms

Basic Medical Terminology

STUDY
PLAY
anemia
"without blood" - Low Red Blood Count
excise
to cut out
polyuria
excessive amount of urine
anatomy
the study of the structure of the body
cholecystectomy
excision of the gallbladder
hemorrhoidectomy
excision of the hemorrhoids
oophorectomy
exicision of the ovary
cystectomy
excision of the bladder
excision
to remove or take out
incision
to cut into
arthr/o
joint
bronch/o
bronchus
cardi/o
heart
carp/o
wrist
cerebr/o
cerebrum
cervic/o
cervix
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
chondr/o
cartilage
col/o
colon
colp/o
vagina
cost/o
rib
crani/o
cranium (skull)
cyst/o
bladder
dent/o
teeth
derm/o
skin
encaphal/o
brain
gastr/o
stomach
hepa, hepat/o
liver
hyster/o
uterus
mast/o
breast
my/o
muscle
neur/o
nerve
nephr/o
kidney
oste/o
bone
ot/o
ear
pneum/o
lungs
proct/o
rectum, anus
pyel/o
pelvis of kidney
rhin/o
nose
spondyl/o
vertebra
thyr/o
thyroid gland
trache/o
trachea
-ostomy
new permanent opening (ie, colostomy)
-otomy
incision into (ie, tracheotomy)
gyne
woman
ile/o
ileum (small intestine)
irid/o
iris (eye)
jejun/o
jejunum (small intestine)
kerat/o
cornea of eye
lamina
thin, flat part of vertebra
laryng/o
larynx (voice box)
lingua
tongue
lobe
lobe, as of lung
metr/o
uterus
myring/o
eardrum
oophor/o
ovary
ophthalm/o
eye
orchi/o
testicle
orchid/o
testicle
pancreat/o
pancreas
pharyng/o
throat
phleb/o
vein
pod/o
foot
ren/o
kidney
sacr/o
sacrum
salping/o
fallopian tube
sigmoid/o
lower portion of colon
steth/o
chest
stomat/o
mouth
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
tendon
thorac/o
thorax (chest)
tympan/o
eardrum
ureter/o
ureter
urethr/o
urethra
vas/o
vessel
ven/o
vein
cranio
skull only
cephalo
head
cerebro
part of brain
encephalo
entire brain
nephro
entire kidney
reno
entire kidney
pyelo
pelvis of kidney
-ectomy
excision of
-oplasty
plastic surgery on
-opexy
surgical fixation
-orrhaphy
surgical repair of
-otripsy
crushing
-ocentesis
puncture (tapping)
-ectasis or ectasia
stretching (dilating)
-osis, iasis
condition of
-itis
inflammation of
-opathy
any disease of
-algia or dynia
pain
-cele
hernia, swelling
-orrhagia
excessive bleeding
The four signs of inflammation are
swelling, pain, heat, redness
a-, an-, ar- (ie, anemic)
without or not
ad- (ie, adduction)
near, toward
ab- (ie, abnormal)
away from
anti- (i.e. antibiotic)
against
ante- (i.e. anteflexion)
before, forward
contra- (i.e. contraindicated)
against or not
dis- (i.e. disease)
from
dys- (i.e. dysuria)
painful or difficult
hemi- (i.e. hemiplegia)
half (one side)
-plegia
paralysis
hyper- (i.e. hypertension)
too much, high
hypo- (i.e. hypodermic)
not enough, low or under
inter- (i.e. intercostal)
between
intra- (i.e. intramuscular)
within
-oscope
instrument for looking into
-oscopy
procedure using a scope
-otome
instrument for cutting thin section
-ograph
instrument (or machine) that records
-ography
diagnostic procedure
-ogram
recording or "picture" produced by an "-ography" procedure
-ometer
instrument that measures or counts
-ometry, -imetry
procedure using the measuring or counting instrument
bio- (i.e. bioethics)
life
brady- (i.e. bradycardia)
slow
tachy- (i.e. tachycardia)
fast
de- (i.e. dehydrate)
take away, remove
re- (i.e. rehudrate)
put back
dia- (i.e. diarrhea)
through (as in running through)
hemo- (i.e. hematemesis)
blood
hydro- (i.e. hydrate)
water
hyper- (i.e. hypertension)
high; too much
hypo- (i.e. hypotension)
low; not enough; under
lip- (i.e. lipoma)
fat
poly- (i.e. polyuria)
many, much
pre- (i.e. prenatal)
before
pro- (i.e. prognosis)
preceding, coming
post- (i.e. postpartum)
following, after
-olysis, -olytic, -olyzed
destruction, to separate out
-oma
tumor (new growth), neoplasm, space-occupying lesion
-oid
like, similar to
-plasia
growth (cell)
-trophy
development
-malacia
softening
-orrhea
flow or discharge
-pnea (pneumo-)
breathing, air, lungs
-paresis
weakness (less than paralysis)
bacteria
Bacteria are larger, easily grown in the lab, and can be seen with regular microscopes. Generally they can be treated successfully with antibiotics however, many bacteria are now becoming resistant to antibiotics.
viruses
Viruses are so small that they can only be seen with an electron microscope, cannot be grown on artificial media, and are not successfully treated by antibiotics.
chromo-
color
erythro-
red
leuko-
white
melano-
black
cyano-
blue
cirrh-
orange yellow
xanth/o-
yellow
polio
gray
anterior (ventral)
toward the front, or in front of
posterior (dorsal)
toward the back, or in back of
lateral
side
bilateral
both sides
medial
middle
oblique
at an angle
superior (supra)
above
inferior (sub) (infra)
below
cephalic
head (similar to superior)
caudal
"tail" or base of spine (similar to inferior)
proximal
nearest to center
distal
farthest from center
peripheral
outer edges
transverse (trans-)
horizontal body plane, divides body into top and bottom sections; across or through
sagittal
vertical body plane, through trunk of body; if exactly through middle , it is midsaggital, and divides the body into equal right and left sides.
coronal
vertical body plane, divides body into front and back sections (anterior and posterior) standing
upright
standing
decubitus
lying down
recumbent
lying down
unilateral
one side
flexion
bending
vertebral column
starting at the neck: cervical vertebrae (7), thoracic or dorsal (12), lumbar (5), sacral (5,fused), coccyx or tailbone (4)
axial
skull, thorax (ribs and sternum), vertebral column
appendicular
the appendages that hang from the axial skeleton; upper and lower extremities (includes shoulder and pelvic girdle)
aponeurosis
flattened tendon; resembles a membrane that attaches muscle to bones or tissue
ball and socket joint
hip and shoulder joints
bursa
small sacs that cushion joints between tendons and bones
fascia
connective tissue sheath; covers, supports, and separates muscles; holds muscle fibers
hinge joint
elbows, knees, fingers
interphalangeal joints
fingers and toes
intervertebral disks
cartilaginous material between vertebrae
lamina (ae)
flattened part of the vertebral arch ( thinnest part of vertebrae)
ligament
strong fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
meniscus
lateral and medial knee cartilage
sutures
articulations in the cranial bones; immovable joints
synovial fluid
clear joint fluid that acts as a lubricant
temporomandibular joint TMJ
connecting point of lower jawbone and temporal bone
tendon
fibrous tissue attaching muscle to bone
theca
covering or sheath of a tendon
acetabulum
large socket for head of femur (hip)
foramen
holes in the bone for large vessels and nerves to pass through
fossa (ae)
depressions or hollows
grooves
shallow linear depressions in bone (or tooth)
malleolus
hammerlike protuberance (either side of ankle)
olecranon
a process on the ulnar bone (elbow)
prominences, processes, tuberosities
projections
sinuses
air spaces in cranium that lighten the skull and serve as voice resonating chambers