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any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome, not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual
a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans, a trait that is coded for by an allele on a sex chromosome
mutation that occurs in an organism's gametes, do not affect the organism itself but can be passed on
a mutation that occurs in a body cell and can affect the organism, cannot be inherited
a gene or chromosomal mutation that influences the development of an organism in such a way that the organism cannot survive, causes death, often before birth
the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis. One gamete receives an extra copy and another gamete receives no copies
a mutation, such as the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in a coding sequence, that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame
a mutation in which one or more nucleotides are added to a gene, which can also result in a frameshift mutation
a character such as skin color that is influenced strongly by both genes and the environment
a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygote
a condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of the individual's two parents because the dominant allele is unable to express itself fully
an autosomal trait that is influenced by the presence of male or female sex hormones
an autosomal dominant condition characterized by forgetfulness and irritability
a procedure used in fetal diagnosis in which amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus of the pregnant woman
chorionic villi sampling
a procedure in which the chorionic villi to are analyzed to diagnose fetal genotypes
the process of testing and informing potential parents about their genetic makeup and the likelihood that they will have offspring with genetic defects or hereditary diseases
a technique that places a gene into a cell to correct a hereditary disease or to improve the genome
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