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Terms in this set (33)
How much of the outer fibrous layer is made up of sclera?
Extends from the limbus anteriorly to the optic nerve posteriorly to merge with the dural sheath of the optic nerve; covered by tenon's capsule and anteriorly bulbar conj
Episclera, sclera, Lamina fusca
3 layers of sclera outer to inner
1-1.35 mm thickest
Sclera thickness near optic nerve
Sclera thickness at the equator of the globe
Sclera thickness under rectus muscles just before insertions
Sclera thickness at insertions
Sclera thickness near limbus
What is the diameter of sclera of an adult emmetrope?
What's the scleral diameter range for the myopic and hyperopic eyes?
Thin, outer layer of sclera; inner to tenon's capsule but merges ~3mm from limbus; composed of loose connective tissue, highly vascular
Fibroblasts, collagen fibers, ground substance
Episcleral loose connective tissue is composed of?
Inner to episclera; made of dense connective tissue; may be blue if thin; may be yellow if fatty deposits build up or metabolic waste builds up
Collagen type 1
What type of collagen is in sclera?
Factors that collagen contributes to strength, rigidity, and color of sclera
Diameter and spacing of fibers vary; fibers in bundles arranged in lamellae; fibers are arranged circularly in the anterior, inner sclera to form a ring
Outer are parallel to surface, inner in all directions
How are the scleral lamellae arranged?
Collagen fibers arranged in anterior, inner sclera forming a ring; longitudinal ciliary muscle attach to its posterior border
Elastin in sclera
Abundant deeper in sclera, especially near the rectus insertions and more posteriorly; weaves between bundles of collagen fibers
Age, infancy, with collagen disease
What can cause a thin stroma in sclera making it blue?
What can cause fatty deposit build up in sclera making it yellow?
What causes the yellow sclera when metabolic wastes build up?
Innermost aspect of sclera; adjacent to choroid; modified scleral stroma with large # melanocytes from the choroid- gives it a brown color
Provides strong, tough external framework to protect intraocular structures; maintains globe shape; insertions site for EOM's; apertures/foremen allow nerves and BVs to enter/exit globe
Functions of sclera
Apertures in sclera near recti muscle insertions for anterior ciliary arteries/veins and maybe the long ciliary nerve
If the long ciliary nerve enters the anterior apertures; may be surrounded by pigment
Holes for the vortex vein 4 mm posterior to the equator
Holes for short/long posterior ciliary arteries, short/long ciliary nerves around the scleral canal(posterior foramen)
Area occupied by the cornea in the sclera
Posterior foramen(scleral canal)
Hole in sclera for central retinal artery/vein and optic nerve fibers; transversed by scleral fibers
Where scleral fibers transverse the posterior foramen(scleral canal)
Weakest area of sclera; forms a fenestrated scaffold called the lamina cribosa
Episcleral arterial circle in episclera
Blood supply to sclera
Episcleral veins-> superior/inferior ophthalmic veins
Blood drainage in sclera
CN V-> V1 ophthalmic-> nasociliary-> long ciliary in anterior and sensory root of ciliary ganglion-> short ciliary in posterior
Sensory innervation of sclera is by
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