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The recognition of individual differences is central to any discussion of organizational behavior. This chapter addresses the nature of individual differences and describes why understanding and valuing these differ-ences is increasingly important in today's workplace.

_____ and _____ are two related aspects of the self-concept.

self-esteem...... self-efficacy

to personality systematically examine the ways in which personality develops across time.

Developmental approaches

combines a set of physical and mental characteristics that reflect how a person looks, thinks, acts and feels.


Which traits are associated with the "Big Five" personality dimension of extraversion?

outgoing, sociable, and assertive

______ traits are surface-level traits that reflect the way a person appears to others when interacting in various social settings.


According to the social traits literature, which individuals prefer routine and order, and emphasize wel-defined details in gathering information; they would rather work with known facts than look for possibilities.


A person high in ____ ins concerned with toughness and power and opposes the use of subjective feelings.


Which people lose interest in and satisfaction with a job due to stressful working conditions, they are likely to be experiencing

Job Burnout

Managers should be alert to key symptoms of excessive stress in themselves and their employees. Which of the following are key stress symptoms?

-Changes from punctuality to tardiness
-Changes from diligent work to careless work
-Changes from cooperation to hostility

Examples of erminal value

-exciting life
-world at peace
-family security

occurs when individuals express positive feelings upon encountering others who exibit values similar to their own

Value Congruence

are the ways in which people are similar and how they vary in their thinking, feeling, and behavior.

Individual differences

means being aware of one's own behaviors, preferences, styles, biases, personalities, etc.


is being aware of behaviors, preferences, styles, biases, personalities, etc. of others.

Awareness of others

is the view individuals have of themselves as physical, social, spiritual, or moral beings.

Self- concept

is a belief about one's own worth based on an overall self-evaluation.


is an individual's belief about the likelihood of successfully completing a specific task.


is the overall combination of characteristics that capture the unique nature of a person as that person reacts to and interacts with others.


enduring characteristics describing an individual's behavior.

Personality traits—

are surface-level traits that reflect the way a person appears to others when interacting in social settings.

Social traits

reflects the way a person gathers and evaluates information when solving problems and making decisions.

Problem-solving style

4 Problem Solving Styles

-Sensation- Feeling Interpersonal Specific human detail Friendly, sympathetic Open communication Respond to people now
-Sensation-Thinking Technical detail oriented Logical analysis of hard data Precise, orderly Careful about rules and procedures Dependable, responsible Responsible
-Intuitive-Feeling Insightful, mystical Idealistic, personal Creative, original Global ideas oriented to people Human potential
-Intuitive- Thinking Speculative Emphasize understanding Synthesize, interpret Logic- oriented ideas Objective, impersonal, idealistic

traits represent individuals' major beliefs and personal orientation concerning a range of issues concerning social and physical setting.

Personal conception

is the extent a person feels able to control his or her own life and is concerned with a person's internal- external orientation.

Locus of control

________ personality is the disposition that identifies whether or not individuals act to influence their environments.


is a tendency to adhere rigidly to conventional values and to obey recognized authority.


leads a person to see the world as a threatening place and to regard authority as absolute.


causes someone to view and manipulate others purely for personal gain.


is a person's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external situational ( environmental) factors.


t traits are traits related to how much an individual experiences emotional distress or displays unacceptable acts.

Emotional adjustmen

Type _ orientations are characterized by impatience, desire for achievement, and a more competitive nature than Type B.


Type _ orientations are characterized by an easygoing and less competitive nature than Type A.


is tension from extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities.


is a stress that has a positive impact on both attitudes and performance.


is a negative impact on both attitudes and performance.


is a loss of interest in or satisfaction with a job due to stressful working conditions.

Job burnout

is a response or reaction to distress that has occurred or is threatened.


mechanisms manage the problem that is causing the distress.

Problem-focused coping

mechanisms regulate emotions or distress.

motion- focused coping

involves the pursuit of one's job and career goals with the support of a personal health promotion program.

Personal wellness

are broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes.


reflect a person's preferences concerning the " ends" to be achieved.

Terminal values

reflect a person's beliefs about the means to achieve desired ends.

Instrumental values

Allport's six value categories

• Theoretical— interest in the discovery of truth through reasoning and systematic thinking
• Economic— interest in usefulness and practicality, including the accumula-tion of wealth
• Aesthetic— interest in beauty, form, and artistic harmony
• Social— interest in people and love as a human relationship
• Political— interest in gaining power and influencing other people
• Religious— interest in unity and in understanding the cosmos as a whole

Meglino and associates' value categories

• Achievement— getting things done and working hard to accomplish difficult things in life
• Helping and concern for others— being concerned for other people and with helping others
• Honesty— telling the truth and doing what you feel is right
• Fairness— being impartial and doing what is fair for all concerned

occurs when individuals express positive feelings upon encountering others who exhibit values similar to their own.

Value congruence

is the learned and shared way of thinking and acting among a group of people or society.


is a culture's acceptance of the status and power differences among its members.

Power distance

is the cultural tendency to be uncomfortable with uncertainty and risk in everyday life.

Uncertainty avoidance

is the tendency of members of a culture to emphasize individual self- interests or group relationships.


is the degree to which a society values assertiveness or relationships..

Masculinity- femininity

is the degree to which a culture emphasizes long- term or short- term thinking.

Long- term/ short- term orientation

is a mix of people within a workforce who are considered to be, in some way, different from those in the prevailing constituency.

Workforce diversity

is a phrase coined to describe how women have not reached the highest levels of organizations.

Leaking pipeline

occurs when people make a generalization, usually exaggerated or oversimplified ( and potentially offensive) that is used to describe or distinguish a group.


is the focus of an organization's culture on welcoming and supporting all types and groups of people.


theory is a theory developed to understand the psychological basis of discrimination.

Social identity

occurs when individuals feel part of a group and experience favorable status and a sense of belonging.

In- group

occurs when one does not feel part of a group and experiences discomfort and low belongingness

Out- group

t is a federal civil- rights statute that protects the rights of people with disabilities.

The Americans with Disabilities Ac

is any form of impairment or handicap.


is the practice of designing products, buildings, public spaces, and programs to be usable by the greatest number of people.

Universal design

is a phenomenon whereby an individual is rejected as a result of an attribute that is deeply discredited by his/ her society, is rejected as a result of the attribute.


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