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Viral Respiratory Diseases (week 2-3)
Terms in this set (67)
- Equine influenza & Canine influenza
- Porcine influenza
- Avian influenza
Are all examples of what virus family?
What is the reservoir of orthomyxoviruses?
pathway of orthomyxoviruses from replication to excretion/transmission
Replicate in intestinal epithelium of aquatic birds; excreted in feces; fecal-oral transmission
structure of orthomyxoviruses
Negative (-) sense, single-stranded RNA, segmented genome, Pleomorphic enveloped particles, 2 glycoprotein spikes: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) at least for influenza A, B
Influenza ___ : common in birds, mammals (humans)
Influenza __: humans (rarely in seals)
Influenza __: humans and swine, mild disease
When two viruses infect the same cell, can exchange genetic segments, mixing viral genes
Highly contagious during incubation period; shed for ~5 days after clinical signs begin
Equine influenza virus (H3N8)
Mostly mild respiratory signs
in china and korea in 2005, korea to Chicago in feb 2015 where its still found, vaccine available, can infect cats
Canine influenza (H3N8, H3N2)
(bird flu) global spread, human deaths
Avian influenza (H5N1)
Two locations mainly effected by avian influenza
respiratory and GI
- Visceral and lymphoid necrosis leading to pancreatitis, encephalitis etc
- Systemic infection/death
- Host specific, can be more virulent in one species over the other
- Petechial hemorrhages in respiratory, digestive and cardiac tissues
All pathological mechanisms of ?
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus is in what family?
Name the 5 genus in the Paramyxovirus family
- Canine Distemper Viruses in dogs and other carnivores
- Peste des Petite Ruminants, [Rinderpest virus]
Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (PI3 or BPIV3)
Newcastle Disease Virus(AvianAvulavirus-1,APMV-1)
Canine rubulavirus (parainfluenza virus 5, PIV-5), mumps virus
Hendra, Nipah and others
- main 3 clinical signs
- Negative single stranded RNA viruses, enveloped
- Lytic replication with cell destruction due to
formation, often in the respiratory tract, but also in lymphocytes or neurons
- Most common transmission is through the nose
- Clinical signs: respiratory, neurologic and GI
Canine distemper clinical signs:
• Diphasic fever 3-6 days after infection
• Leukopenia early in infection
• Coughing, sneezing, dyspnea, sometime
• Nasal/ocular discharge
• GI catarrh, respiratory catarrh
• Excess salivation
d*: hyperkeratosis of footpads and nose
• Secondary bacterial infections
• Anorexia and depression
hypoplasia of teeth
- CNS signs
Distemper systemic and CNS disease signs:
Demyelination, myoclonus, seizures, depression, paralysis, incoordination, ataxia, muscle tremors, meningeal signs of hyperesthesia, cervical rigidity
CNS signs can be delayed for years after primary infection (relapse encephalitis) of distemper T/F?
"Old dog encephalitis"
delayed from primary infection of distemper
visual defects, circling, head pressing
- Acute or subacute disease of goats and sheep
- Fever, necrotic stomatitis, gastroenteritis, pneumonia, and sometimes death
- Potential agroterrorism agent.
- Sheep and goats; endemic in gazelles, ibex and gemsbock
- Throughout Africa (except southern tip); the Middle East; Indian subcontinent
Peste de Petit Ruminants (Rinderpest)
- eradicated here?
- immunity effective?
• Transmission by close contact through secretions and excretions of sick animals
• Transmission during the incubation period. No carrier state
• An OIE-reportable disease worldwide
• Eradication where possible
• Modified live vaccine - immunity is effective
Pathology/Clinical Signs of Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3
• Infects tracheal and bronchial ciliated epithelia - destruction of ciliated epithelium
• Decreases mucociliary clearance
• In uncomplicated cases, or in absence of co-infections, mild respiratory signs with clear nasal discharge 3-4 days duration, possibly mild fever
• Secondary bacterial or viral infection [e.g. IBR or bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV)] - deep cough, fever, depression, inappatence, dyspnea, and other signs of bacterial pneumonia
Are the vaccines against Bovine Parainfluenza virus 3 protective?
nope, might lessen symptoms
Immunity from natural infection of bovine parainfluenza virus 3 is long or short lived?
- severe destruction of epithelia
- replicates in aveolar epithelia, causing interstitial emphysema
- most severe in calves held in close quarters
- also occurs in adult cows in naïve herds
- shipping fever if secondarily infected with bacteria
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus
Clinical Signs of bovine respiratory syncytial virus
• Sudden onset of fever and inappetance with rhinitis, nasal discharge and cough
• Nasal discharge is clear - may be mucopurulent with time due to secondary infections
• Suborbital and submandibular edema possible
• Wheezing, crackles on auscultation suggesting brochopneumonia, possible subcutaneous emphysema
• Dyspnea - with head extended
• Animals on the highest plane of nutrition (so the healthiest animals) suffer the most severe disease
Does the vaccine for bovine respiratory syncytial virus stop infection?
no just lessens symptoms
Bovine respiratory disease complex control through reducing _____ and _____
stress and contact
-Affects chickens worldwide
-3 pathotypes: lentogenic (low virulence), mesogenic, and velogenic (also called viscerotropic or highly virulent)
-Velogenic strains are reportable in the USA
- Import of exotic avian species increases risk of velogenic strain introduction
Clinical signs of Newcastle disease
• GI: crop dilation, yellow diarrhea, hemorrhages in junctions of esophagus/proventriculus and gizzard/proventriculus in velogenic strains
• Respiratory: dyspnea, cyanosis of combs, wattles, head swelling
• Nervous: ataxia, head tilt, circling, clonic spasms
Shed by aerosol or ingestion, can survive in feces in wet litter for days to weeks
In newcastle disease, antibody blocks ____, but not respiratory infection or cell-cell spread
Is newcastle zoonotic to humans? if so what does it look like?
yes, occasional conjunctivits
Canine parainfluenza virus 5 causes ____ by _____ ?
canine tracheobronchitis (kennel cough)
infecting tracheobronchial epithelium, decreasing mucociliary clearance
A common secondary infection of Canine parainfluenza virus 5 is
clinical signs of canine parainfluenza virus 5
sudden onset of nasal discharge, cough, some fever for 3-14 days
DAPP vaccine stands for:
D = for canine distemper,
A = adenovirus,
P = canine parvovirus, second
P = parainfluenza
Are hendra and nipah viruses zoonotic and what is the trasnmission?
fruit bat to horse to human
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) is in what family of viruses?
Clinical signs of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV)
Anorexia, fever, cyanosis of ears, snout, abortion of piglets late in gestation
Why should you not give live vaccine in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) negative herds?
The virus can be shed from pig excretions
Infectious bronchitis virus is in what virus family and mainly effects what animal?
Infectious bronchitis virus is a _____coronavirus
- A rapidly spreading respiratory disease of chickens of all ages, but especially young birds.
- Can infect the entire flock within days.
- Generally, prognosis is good,
- Mortality/severity of disease can increase with secondary infections
- Strains can spread to and infect kidney and oviducts
- Stops egg production and when it finally resumes, there are many types of abnormalities
Infectious bronchitis virus
How to diagnose IBV
• Respiratory signs do not distinguish between IBV, avian influenza and Newcastle disease.
• Indirect immunofluorescence of tracheal epithelium can be done with antibodies specific for IBV.
• There are signs in inoculated chicken embryos that are unique to each virus making this useful diagnostically.
• Avian influenza and Newcastle naturally hemagglutinate but IBV does not, unless induced in a lab via neuraminidase
• PCR/sequencing is most helpful cause it can also tell you the variant
Besides Infectious bronchitis in chickens, is there any other respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus?
yes, canine respiratory coronavirus
Feline Herpesvirus Type 1 is a _____herpesvirus
feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR).
Coinfections of feline herpes with ____ are common. The two are part of the feline respiratory disease complex (which also includes _____ and _____ ).
feline herpes virus is latent in _____, and possibly other sites
Clinical signs of feline herpes virus 1
• Primary infection: fever, depression, anorexia, conjunctivitis, sneezing, oral and nasal discharge from clear to mucopurulent. Ulcers of nasal or oral epithelium (corneal less common).
• FHV-1 can occasionally cause abortion in pregnant queens.
why is serology not used with feline herpes diagnosis?
virtually every cat is seropositive
• Economically the most important disease of swine worldwide.
• Pigs are the natural host, but other domestic animals are also susceptible. The disease is usually fatal in these aberrant hosts.
Swine: Suid herpesvirus type 1
Clinical signs of suid herpesvirus type 1
• Upper respiratory tract disease
• Cell-associated viremia
• Neurological signs
• Feral swine: often asymptomatic!
Gallid herpesvirus type 1 is a ___herpesvirus
• Also named infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT).
• More common in backyard flocks than in commercial broiler operations, and in 4-18 month-old-birds than older birds.
• Morbidity is around 100% (highly contagious)
• Mortality depends on the strain, ranges from 10- 70%.
• Also infects pheasants.
Gallid herpesvirus type 1
Clinical signs of gallid herpesvirus I
• Nasal discharge, sneezing
• Coughing, labored breathing
• Depression, reduced egg production
• Sloughing of epithelium and clotted blood can form "diphtheritic membranes" that can occlude bronchi, syrinx, trachea.
Gallid herpesvirus I
-is there evidence of viremia?
-can it be reactivated, if so how?
trigeminal and trachea
yes by stress
Whats unique about the histology finding of gallid herpesvirus I?
• Also named Marek's disease virus (MDV).
• One of the most ubiquitous avian infections.
• Highly cell-associated alphaherpesvirus with gammaherpes- viral lymphotropic properties.
• Turkeys are commonly infected with turkey herpesvirus (HVT), an avirulent strain related to MDV that is commonly used as a vaccine in chickens.
• Other birds and mammals appear not susceptible.
Gallid herpesvirus type 2
• Irregular pupil margins
• Thickened sciatic nerves
• Enlarged feather follicles
are all lesions from
gallid herpesvirus II
This set is often in folders with...
Immunology and bacteria (week 3)
Bunyaviruses and Arenaviruses (week 3)
Coronaviruses and Herpesvirus (week 3)
Respiratory Tract Infections (week 3)
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