98 terms

Anth 3 Midterm

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No domesticated plants were cultivated in North America until they were introduced soon after the arrival of colonists from the Old World. (T/F)
false
The study of the past human use of animals is called
zoo archaeology
The Nuer of Southern Sudan are an example of
a segmentary society
Pollen analysis allows archaeologists to
reconstruct regional climates
In Elman Service's typology of human societies, mobile hunter-gather groups are
bands
Unlike sex, which is biologically determined, ________ is a social construct involving the roles of individuals in society.
gender
An important method used to gain an understanding of a past society involves the study of the present-day use and significance of artifacts, buildings, and structures, and the way these things became incorporated into the archaeological record when they are abandoned. Such an approach is know as
ethnoarchaeology
When sites associated with this type of society are ranked according to size and displayed on a histogram there will only be a narrow range of variation in site size and all the sites will be quite small.
hunter-gather groups
The sheer number of man-hours required to build Stonehenge (estimated at 30,000,000 hours of work) indicated that at that time the Wessex area of Britain
was centrally organized
Warfare is always undertaken with the objective of permanently occupying the lands of the vanquished in a process of territorial expansion. (T/F)
false
Hammurabi's law code was written in the Akkadian language, in the script known as cuneiform. (T/F)
true
Many concepts that we consider to be inherent to our humanness, such as our system of morals, our concept of gender, even how we respond to our senses, are not natural "givens". (T/F)
true
Centralized societies typically exhibit disparities between rich and poor, and thus they offer the potential to study social ranking and organization. Which of the following would you suggest offers strong evidence of social ranking?
Elite residences, rich burials, and craft specialists
A state-level society is usually described as consisting of
more than 20,000 people
According the Service, large-scale monuments emerge in what type of society?
Chiefdoms
The only incontrovertible proof that a particular plant or animal species was actually consumed by people in the past comes from
traces in human stomach contents or fecal matter
Social hierarchy is part of ________ and ________ societies, however ________ societies have a standing army.
chiefdom and state, state
Perhaps a better term for hunter-gather societies is
mobile
Cyberarchaeology is collaborative work between: computer science, engineering, archaeology, and natural sciences. (T/F)
true
Archaeology has the unique advantage of being able to study processes of change over thousands of years. (T/F)
true
Full-time pottery makers, metal workers, or other such artisans who form an important part of complex societies are referred to by archaeologists as
craft specialists
Which of the following are relative dating methods? (2 things)
radiocarbon dating and seriation
Commonly found preserved in ash layers, pottery, and on stone tools, and even teeth, minute particles of silica derived from plant cells survive after the rest of the organism is decomposed are known as
phytoliths
Wood that is said to be desiccated has been preserved due to
extreme cold or dryness
Experimental evidence suggests that the transition from wild to domestic plants could have been completed with
only 20 to 200 years
Analysis of plant residues on artifacts can help to define the function of the vessels being studied. (T/F)
true
Once a piece of wood is burnt and becomes charcoal it is impossible for archaeologists to even guess what type of tree it came from. (T/F)
false
Which of the following is not an example of macro botanical remains?
phytolith
The term _______ refers to what people were eating at a particular time and the term ________ refers to what people were eating over a longer period of time.
meal; diet
If you were conducting an archaeological investigation of a shipwreck, which of the following would be part of the data collection stage?
feature and artifact recording and raising
Artifact Analysis includes all of the following except:
architecture
ArcField, OpenDig, and ArchaeoSTOR are all software programs developed to do what?
collect, organize, digitize, store, and easily share all different kinds of data collected during archaeological investigation
What 3 things should always be included in all maps?
1. title
2. north arrow
3. scale
Relative Dating is
the determination of chronological sequence without referring to a fixed time scale
Stratification (3 things)
1. is essential to relative dating
2. is the laying down of start or layers
3. can be used to provide relative chronological sequence
Typology is the systematic organization of artifacts into types on the basis of shared attributes, which of the following is not (4 things)
1. architecture
2. ceramics
3. stone tools
4. beads
Frequency seriation (2 things)
1. measuring changes in the proportional abundance or frequency of design changes through time
2. is a relative dating method
Cahokia, located in North America was part of a state level society. (T/F)
false
Domestication occurred independently in many parts of the world in the Holocene period. (T/F)
true
A leading thinker on Old World history who was heavily influenced by Marxist ideal, Gordon Childe moved beyond simply describing cultural sequences by seeking to understand (3 things)
1. the origins of civilization
2. the origins of the Neolithic Revolution
3. the origins of the Urban Revolution
The metal trade taking place in the 5th and 4th millennium BCE in the Near East is thought to have reached as far as (2 places)
Arabia and Egypt
he underground tunnels and chambers at the Chalcolithic site of Shiqmim in Israel were most likely used for (2 things)
1. storage of staple goods
2. defensive positions in warfare
Exceptional preservation of "Ötzi" or the "Iceman", found in the Alps in 1991, allowed documentation of his health, past injuries, tattoos, and diet. Radiocarbon dates suggest he lived at about
3300 BC
Which of the following scholars in not associated with the concept of Unilineal Evolution?
Franz Boas
After 14 years of work, this scholar was able to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs in 1822.
Jean-François Champollion
The Chalcolithic Period in the Levant saw which technological revolution?
metallurgy
Organic and environmental remains, or ecofacts, which were not made by humans but still provide information about the past include such items as
soils, sediments, animal bones, plant remains
Although it was less applicable in place where bronze or iron were not used, the Three Age System was conceptually significant to the study of prehistory of
Europe
To make archaeology more important to the understanding of human society, most archaeologists today, unlike those working in the past, are interesting in reconstructing
culture history
"Survival of the fittest" a ket mechanism in Darwin's theory of evolution, is also known as
natural selection
The concept of multi-linear evolution refers to the idea that there is no single pathway for individual members of society to become chiefs. (T/F)
true
The central concern of the "classificatory-historical period" of archaeological thought, which lasted until 1960, was
chronology
Typically, the most destructive types of climate for organic materials are
tropical climates
The mummies of the Andes are a good example of exceptional preservation of organic material resulting from its location in a
cold climate
What are some of the criticisms post-processual archaeologists made about previous approaches to studying the past? (4 things)
1. archaeology did not consider the interests of underrepresented ethnicities in their interpretations
2. archaeology was man-centric
3. archaeology was Europe-centric
4. archaeologists were inherently biased because of their own personal backgrounds
Who is considered to be the first person to have conducted a scientific excavation of an ancient site?
Thomas Jefferson
In the model of culture as a system, which is NOT a variable?
paleoclimate
Objects used, modified, or made by people are known as
artifacts
Bog bodies, primarily individuals who met a violent death (such as Tollund Man, from Denmark) are best known from northwest Europe and typically date to the
Iron Age
Before any archaeological fieldwork begins, archaeologists try to make their objectives explicit in the form of a
research design
After the procress of survey, excavation, recording, mapping, and post-excavation analysis, all these efforts are largely wasted unless
the results are published
Radiocarbon dating methods can be used on
organic materials
The underlying premise of _________ is that particular kinds of archaeological sites tend to occur in the same kinds of place.
predictive models
Visible differences in vegetation growth resulting from a sub-surface wall of ditch affecting the available moisture, nutrients, or soil depth, appear in aerial photographs as
crop marks
By more than 1.6 million years ago, Home erectus emerged in
East Africa
Some scholars prefer the term BCE to the term BC when talking about calendar dates because BC, which means Before Christ, is not necessarily meaningful in areas with other calendars or religions. What does BCE stand for?
Before the Common Era
Which dating technique would yield a result that might read 2.25 million years before present, plus of minus 50,000 years?
potassium-argon dating
The Teotihuacán mapping project used a variety of methods to map vast areas of the site. These techniques included
aerial and surface survey
Geophysical methods can be very effective fro land-based site identification, but rarely effective in the underwater reconnaissance. (T/F)
false
Radiocarbon dating methods can only be used on
textiles
Layers of sediments resulting from the melting of ice sheets and deposited in lakes on an annual basis are known as
varves
__________ were a significant development in pyrotechnology during the Neolithic in the Near East around 8000 BC.
Ovens from bread baking
When a thin-section of an object is prepared for study, it is made thin enough to _____________ so that specific materials can be seen in it through the use of a light of a polarizing microscope.
transmit light
Isotopic analysis of lead is not only used on objets made of pure lead, but on artifacts made out of __________ as well. (4 things)
1. copper
2. glass
3. bronze
4. silver
____________, which dominated the human Mesolithic toolkit around 20,000 to 9,500 BCE, are tiny stone tools less than 2 cm long that were probably used as barbs on composite implements.
microliths
___________ did not exist anywhere in the New World until after European contact.
the potter's wheel
A massive amount of information about how commodities were traded in the Mediterranean around 1300 BCE came from the site of Uluburun which is a
shipwreck
In describing mechanisms of exchange, "direct access" is used to describe situations where
the user goes to the source material without the intervention of an exchange mechanism
Volcanic glass, which is used to make chipped stone tools is a particularly good material to preform trace-element analysis on. Another word for Volcanic glass is
obsidian
The idea that the quality of the materials tends to decline as the distance from the source of those material increases is the basic tenant behind
fall-off analysis
Inclusions in the clay used to make pottery that act as a filler, creating strength and counteracting cracking and shrinkage during firing, are known as
temper
While interaction, in the archaeological sense, does involve the exchange of goods, it does not involve the exchange of information. (T/F)
false
Although quite advanced, the Andean cultures of South America were particularly poor at textile manufacture and never developed any advanced forms of weaving. (T/F)
false
Which is of the following NOT a way to examine how artifacts were made and used?
cataloguing
The chaîne opératoire describes the processes involved in artifact from making them to using them to reusing them. (T/F)
true
Which of the following is NOT a product of stone tool technology?
swiss army knife
Acheulian hand-axes were used by
Homo erectus
Which is NOT a variable of Schiffer's behavioral archaeology paradigm?
offering
Historical texts provide valuable information about Tel Akko throughout the Bronze and Iron Ages. Which of the following texts does NOT mention Tel Akko?
the New Testament
Which of the following provide evidence for the Late Bronze Age Mediterranean economy? (2 things)
1. shipwrecks carrying cargo from all over the Mediterranean
2. imported pottery wares at Tel Akko
Why was Tel Akko's location valuable in antiquity?
it was located at the intersection of land and sea trade routes
The Terracotta Warriors in China, the temple of Ehecatl in Mexico, and the tomb of Tutankhamun in Egypt all were discovered accidentally. (T/F)
true
Archaeological survey today studies which of the following? (2 things)
1. variations between regions
2. relationships between people, land, and resources
In which kind of sites would a systematic survey NOT be an advantageous sample strategy?
cemetery
A Middle Eastern "tel" is an example of what kind of process?
site formation process
Archaeological survey is an excellent method to study the change over time in artifact assemblages, as they are super positioned in different strata. (T/F)
false
Who is credited with the invention of Behavioral Archaeology?
Michael B. Schiffer
In a recent article in the journal Nature, scientists published radiocarbon dates that suggest that the first evidence of pottery making goes back as far as 40,000 years BP. (T/F)
false