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Honors US I Final terms
Terms in this set (69)
the practice of dispensing government jobs in return for party loyalty was called the spoils system, and it promoted government corruption.
Indian Removal Act
Jackson thought the most humane solution was to compel the Native Americans to leave their traditional homelands and resettle forced the resettlement of many thousands of Native Americans. By 1835 most eastern tribes had reluctantly complied and moved west.
Trial of Tears
In 1838, the US Army forced 15,000 Cherokees to leave Georgia, and 4,000 died while they were moved west.
each state had the right to decide whether to obey a federal law or to declare it null and void (of no effect).
Recharter of the second bank of the US
Was not rechartered and was the primary platform of Jackson's election
Compromise of 1877
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 election between Rutherford Hayes (rep) and Samuel Tilden (dem). Hayes was awarded the election in exchange for a permanent removal of troops in the south.
Munn vs Il (1877)
US Supreme Court case that allowed states to regulate business within their borders, including railroads.
Wabash vs IL
Overturned Munn vs IL which allowed states to regulate railroads.
Dawes Act of 1877
Removed Indian land from tribal possession, redivided and redistributed it to individuals. Meant to break down tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
In charge of railroads
Co-founder of Standard Oil Company, became worlds richest man and the first man to be worth more than a billion dollars
Johnson was charged with violating the Tenure of Office Act - he removed someone from office without a reason and replaced him with someone else who would be more likely to side with Johnson
Southern Republicans. Mostly wanted to help their states make money.
Restricted the rights of newly-freed African Americans. Blacks: couldn't rent land or borrow money to buy land, had to sign work contracts, couldn't testify against whites in court.
State governments in the South that were controlled by white Democrats
Civil Rights Act of 1866
All African-Americans became US citizens, a shield was attempted to be placed to shield blacks from the southern Black Codes
Plessy v. Ferguson
The Supreme Court upheld a Louisiana law that kept blacks and whites separate on railroads, which led to segregation laws being created
Crops became ridiculously underpriced and farmers couldn't make enough money off of them
Lockout: close the factory before a strike could take place
Blacklists: names of pro-strike workers was circulated among employers
Yellow-dog contracts: workers had to sign a contract saying they wouldn't strike
Private guards and state militias were called in to keep the peace
Court injunctions were gained against strikes
(1820s) Is the political movement that is aimed for greater democracy for the "common man" Andrew Jackson and his followers were the symbols for this movement. Jackson's followers created a Democratic Party and were politically fighting the Whigs.
The common man was a man who was just a simple farmer, he did not grow up with wealth and held a simple, common, life. Andrew Jackson always had a special place for the common man with him, because he was a common man. Jackson spent a good amount of his presidency trying to help the common man rise and not be forgotten.
Cherokee nation vs. GA
the Cherokee nation wanted a federal injunction against laws Georgia passed taking away their rights in the states boundaries. They took it to the Supreme Court but they would not hear the case for that it had no original jurisdiction in the case. In the end the nation was made to relocate.
the campaign, largely by persons with agrarian interests, to maintain or increase the amount of paper money in circulation.
the North blockaded the South and was the invader. The South tried to hold out as long as it could. Hoping that the North would tire or a European power would join their cause.
this treaty was resolving border issues between the U.S. And the British North American colonies. The treaty was signed by United States Secretary of State Daniel Webster and British diplomat Alexander Baring, 1st Baron Ashburton.
The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864
American Federation of Labor (Samuel Gompers)
This federation protected the rights of workers and grew very quickly, Samuel Gompers was an English-born American cigar maker who became a labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history.
was a Scottish-American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. He was also one of the highest profile philanthropists of his era; his 1889 article proclaiming "The Gospel of Wealth" called on the rich to use their wealth to improve society, and stimulated a wave of philanthropy
One of the most powerful bankers of his era, J.P. (John Pierpont) Morgan (1837-1913) financed railroads and helped organize U.S. Steel, General Electric and other major corporations.
Politicians, Protestant ministers and others became concerned with the high rate of alcohol consumption. They believed it was the reason for socials ills. In 1826 the American Temperance Society was founded upon the concerns of alcohol consumption and the effects of such drinking. Pledges of abstinence were suggested. Washingtonians were another society against alcohol; formed in 1830 by recovering alcoholics. German and Irish immigrants apposed. Factory and workers supported the mocement, realizing it could reduce crime and increase worker output. Maine became the first of 13 states to prohibit the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors before the Civil War. However, the movement would gain strength again in the late 1870s (with strong support from the Women's Christian Temperance Union) and achieve national success with the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919
Women's Rights (Seneca Falls)
reformers, typically those involved in the antislavery movement
resented the way men relegated them to secondary roles in the movement and prevented them from taking part fully in policy discussions. Noteworthy figures: Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cad became involved after they had been banned from speaking at an antislavery convention. Also, sisters, Sarah and Angelina Grimke, objected to male opposition to their antislavery activities. In protest, Sarah wrote her Letter on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes (1837)
At Seneca falls New York (1848), leading feminists created a document similar to the Decleration of independence. Their "Declaration of Sentiments" declared that "all men and women are created equal"
and listed women's grievances against laws and customs that discriminated against them. After the
Seneca Falls Convention, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony led the campaign for equal voting, legal, and property rights for women.
Second Great Awakening
partly in reaction against the rationalism (belief in human reason) that had been the fashion during the Enlightenment and the American Revolution, religious revivals swept through the United States during the early decades of the 19th century. It was a time fort he U.S to unit through extreme enthusiasm about religion. The Second Great Awakening began among educated people such as Reverend Timothy Dwight, president of Yale College in Connecticut. Dwight's campus revivals motivated a generation of young men to become evangelical preachers. Preachers trying to excite people about their religion would "perform" for audiences, usually audiences of lower class standards.
Anti-Slavery (Wm Lloyd Garrison)
northerners viewed slavery as a sin, do to the extreme religious outlook on life during the second great awakening. Ways to get rid of slavery: American Colonization Society. The idea of transporting freed slaves to an African colony originated in 1817 not successful even though they appealed to antislavery reformers with moderate views and especially to politicians, in part because large numbers of whites with racist attitudes hoped to remove, or banish, free blacks from U.S. society. American Antislavery Society. In 1831, William Lloyd Garrison began publication of an abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, an event that marks the beginning of the radical abolitionist movement. The Liberty Party: political movement to free slaves. They ran James Birney as their candidate for president in 1840 and 1844. The party's one campaign pledge was to bring about the end of slavery by political and
Prison Reform (Dorothea Dix)
Due to Dorothea Dixs efforts replacing the crude, harsh prisons were penitentiaries, as they were newly being called. They implemented more strict rules of discipline, work programs and solitary confinement (confinement forced them to reflect on their sins and repent. The experiment was dropped because of the high rate of prisoner suicides). Dorothea Dix worked to improve mental hospitals and prisons. As a result of Dix's crusade, mental patients began receiving professional treatment at state expense.
democrats favored local rule and limited government, Whigs favored Clay's American System (a national bank, federal funding of internal improvements, a protective tariff)
Peggy Eaton affair
the wife of Jackson's secretary of war, she was suspected of being an adulteress by other cabinet wives, affair contributed to the resignation of most of the cabinet and Jackson's vice president, John C. Calhoun
Cult of domesticity
the idealized view of women as moral leaders in the home and educators of children
policies of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants
the principle that government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, Jackson used this to present himself as the representative of all people
Worcester v. Georgia
Jackson ordered the removal of the Native Americans
Cherokee nation attempted to sue the United States, in order to remain on their land
First case, Cherokee nation v. Georgia, the Supreme Court found that the Cherokees were not a foreign nation, and therefore they could not sue
Second case, Worcester v. Georgia, the Supreme Court found that the United States had to power to make or govern laws within the boundaries of the Cherokee nation
Jackson openly disagreed with the ruling, and stated that the court would have to enforce their ruling
Panic of 1837
The panic of 1837 plunged the United States economy into a depression
There were several causes for the depression
One of the factors was Jackson's refusal to recharter the Bank of America.
Whigs quickly blamed the democrats, stating that their laissez-faire approach to the economy which allowed little government involvement in the government
The Protective Tariff
Was one of the issues being debated by the Whigs and the Democrats
The Whigs supported the idea of a protective tariff, along with a national bank and federally founded internal improvements
Democrats opposed the tariff
They wanted limited government and free trade
Plan to blockade all southern ports to cut off supplies
Freed the slaves
Lincoln's 10% plan
The south could rejoin the north if 10% of voters took a pledge of allegiance to the north
made to help the newly freed slaves
Military Reconstruction Act
five military districts in the South to be governed by an appointed general
Significance of Antietam
single bloodiest battle of US history, the south lost any chance of foreign help, "point of no return"; life couldn't go back to what it had been.
Significance of Gettysburg
turning point for the North, the farthest North the South got
Significance of Vicksburg
led to the final port captured by the North on Mississippi River, divided Confederate States to East and West
Significance of Sherman's March
destroyed everything from Atlanta to Savannah, caused about $100 million in damage
the popular belief that the US had a divine mission to extend it's power and civilization across North America
US pushing borders southward into Texas. Friction between Americans and Mexicans occurred when Mexico outlawed slavery and required all to convert to Roman Catholicism
1846 Wilmat proposed that a bill be amended to forbid slavery in any new territories acquired from Mexico
Compromise of 1850
California is a free state, which negated the 36-30 line. Texas remains a slave state, Fugitive Slave Act; New Mexico has popular sovereignty; ban slave trade in D.C.
Fight between slave and free states, near Missouri; for Kansas (slave or free state) 1854-1861
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court Case denied Scott's case because he was living in a free state- appealed twice and lost.
First shots that commenced the Civil War in S. Carolina, April 12, 1861
President Pierce agreed with Mexico to sell them thousands of acres for $10 million, today make up Arizona and New Mexico
Lincoln con, Douglas pro (won). Over the expansion of slavery
Fugitive Slave Act
required escaped slaves to be returned to their southern masters
Nebraska territory divided to form Kansas. Promoted western settlement, and settlers of territories had popular sovereignty.
Southern states seceded prior to the Civil War (Dec 1860 S. Carolina seceded, six weeks later many more; Feb 1861, 7 states of the deep south created the Confederate States of America).
declared that all persons born in the US were citizenship, that all citizens were entitled to equal rights and their rights were protected by due process
A person who takes extreme political positions
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or previous condition of servitude
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
KKK and Enforcement Acts
White supremacy group that violated the Civil and political rights of African-Americans. The enforcement act were criminal codes which protected African-Americans' right to vote, to hold office, to serve on juries, and receive equal protection of laws.
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
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