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Lecture Exam III
Terms in this set (191)
Where are some settings where HAI's occur?
microorganisms in healthcare associated environment, compromised host, and chain of transmission
What does HAI stand for?
healthcare acquired infection
What are nosocomial infections?
hospital acquired infections
What is the portal of entry?
pathogens can gain entrance to the human body and other hosts through this
What is the portal of exit?
any body opening on an infected person that allows pathogens to leave
What are the top 3 types of HAI's?
1. surgical site infections
2. lower respiratory infections
3. gastrointestinal infections; 12% of which are c.diff
What are EIDs?
emerging infectious diseases; diseases that are new, increasing in incidence, or showing a potential to increase in the near future
What are the contributing factors of EIDs?
1. genetic recombination and evolution of new strains
2. inappropriate use of antibiotics and pesticides, 3. changes in weather patterns
4. modern transportation
5. ecological disaster, war, and expanding human settlement
6. animal control measure
7. public health failure
What are examples of EIDs spread from genetic recombination and evolution of new strains?
E. coli 0187, Avian influenza H5N1, and V. cholerae O139
What are examples of EIDs spread from inappropriate use of antibiotics and pesticides?
antibiotic resistant strains
What are examples of EIDs spread from changes in weather patterns?
What are examples of EIDs spread from modern transportation?
west nile virus
What are examples of EIDs spread from ecological disaster, war, and expanding human settlement?
What are examples of EIDs spread from animal control measures?
lyme dz; reservoir being the deer and vector being the tick
What are examples of EIDs spread due to public health failure?
What is descriptive epidemiology?
collection and analysis of data regarding occurrence of disease
What is an example of descriptive epidemiology?
snow's search for the cause of cholera outbreak in london
What is analytical epidemiology?
comparison of a diseased group and a healthy group
What is an example of analytical epidemiology?
nightingale, she compared disease in soldiers and civilians
What is experimental epidemiology?
study of a dz using controlled experiments
What is an example of experimental epidemiology?
semmelweiss's use of hand-washing
What is case reporting?
health care workers report nationally notifiable dz to local, state, and national offices
What are nationally notifiable dz's?
physicians are required by law to report cases to U.S. Public Health Service
What is incidence?
# of new cases
What is prevalence?
total number of cases; # of new cases+ # of preexisting cases
What is herd immunity?
immunity in most of a population
What is morbidity?
incidence of a specific notifiable dz
What is mortality?
deaths from notifiable diseases
What does CDC stand for?
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Where is the CDC located?
What does the CDC do?
-collects and analyzes epidemiological information in the US
-publishes morbidity and mortality weekly reports
What are HAIs caused by?
they are infections patients acquire while receiving treatment for other conditions at a health care facility
What is a compromised host?
is one whose resistance to infection is impaired by dz, therapy, or burns
What is the chain of transmission?
HAI's are transmitted by direct contact between staff members are patients between patients
What fomites can transmit HAI's?
syringes, catheters, and respiratory devices
What percentage of patients acquire HAI's in the treatment environment?
In what settings are HAIs acquired?
hospitals, nursing homes, surgical centers, and health care clinics
What is the most frequent cause of HAIs?
How are microorganisms introduced into the body in hospitals?
through medical procedures such as surgery and catheterization
How can HAIs be prevented?
by using aseptic techniques and overseeing the proper cleaning, storage, and handling of equipment and supplies
What is epidemiology?
the study of the transmission, incidence, and frequency of dz
What is a cell?
the structural and functional unit of all living things
What is an organelle?
a specialized part of a cell that performs a distinct function
What is the size of a prokaryotic cell?
0.2-2.0 μm in diameter
What is the size of a eukaryotic cell?
10-100 μm in diameter
What is the nucleus of a prokaryotic cell?
no nuclear membrane or nuclei, except gemmata
What is the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell?
true nucleus, nuclear membrane, nucleoli
How many membrane enclosed organelle does a prokaryotic cell have?
How many membrane enclosed organelle does a eukaryotic cell have?
many; nuclei, lysosomes, golgi complex, ER, mitochondria, and chloroplasts
What is the flagella of prokaryotic cells?
consists of 2 protein building blocks
What is the flagella of eukaryotic cells?
complex; consists of multiple microtubules
What is the glycocalyx of the prokaryotic cell?
present as a capsule or slime layer
What is the glycocalyx of the eukaryotic cell?
present in some cells that lack a cell wall
What is the cell wall of prokaryotic cells?
usually present: chemically complex: usually contains peptidoglycen
What is the cell wall of eukaryotic cells?
simple when present: usually contains cellulose or chitin
What is the plasma membrane of prokaryotic cells?
carbs and generally lacks sterols
What is the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells?
sterols and carbs
What is the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells?
cytoplasm; no cytoplasmic streaming
What is the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells?
cytoplasm; cytoplasmic streaming
What is the ribosome size of prokaryotic cells?
smaller size (7OS)
What is the ribosome size of eukaryotic cells?
larger size (80S); smaller size (70S) in organelles
What is the chromosome (DNA) of prokaryotic cells?
single circular; lacks histone
What is the chromosome (DNA) of eukaryotic cells?
multiple linear; with histones
What is the cell division of prokaryotic cells?
What is the cell division of eukaryotic cells?
What is the sexual recombination of prokaryotic cells?
none; transfer of DNA only
What is the sexual recombination of eukaryotic cells?
How are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells similar?
in their chemical composition and chemical reactions
What do prokaryotic cells typically lack?
membrane-enclosed organelles (including a nucleus)
What is found in prokaryotic cells but not eukaryotic cells?
What type of cells have membrane-bound nucleuses and other organelles?
How is processed ground beef prepared and how many sources can contribute to one batch?
100s-1000s animals can contribute to 1 batch of ground beef; they put 2000lbs of lean and 2000lbs of fat meat and grind it together; meat from all over the world is merged together
What is HACCP and why was it applied to fast food preparation?
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP); E Coli 0157 H7 was transmitted by Jack in the Box to 4 kids who died from it, which is the reason why HACCP was made; they went to NASA for food safety and they suggested HACCP
What are the hazard points for microbial contamination of meats- particularly beef?
feces; coming to work sick; industrialization (speed of production); temperature from transport; cross-contamination: ex sneezing, holes in gloves, or eating near meat
What are the pros and cons of USDA microbial contamination level enforcement?
-universal recall centers 2011
-food safety modernization act (FSMA)
-regulations in places that watch every step
-poke n sniff methods
-"good ole boy system"
-listeria can cross the placenta and kill the baby
Irradiation of meats--what do you think about it?
radiating light does not kill feces, it's still being transmitted; most bacteria have light/dark repair mechanisms to divide and reproduce again; takes a lot of radiation to kill microbes
How does globalization, industrialization, and centralization play a role in "modern meat" video?
fruits and veggies; food and veggies; all foods
How much larger are eukaryotes than prokaryotes?
absent; except in gemmata
What allows pathogens to enter the nucleus?
What is called a "little nucleus"?
What is the structure of a nucleus?
surrounded by nuclear membrane (envelope) punctuated with nuclear pores
What does a nucleus contain?
What is chromatin?
uncoiled chromosomes, RNA and proteins (histone and non-histone)
What is the function of a nucleolus?
site of RNA synthesis
Which proteins have histones?
Which proteins don't have histones?
Where is the endoplasmic reticulum located?
Rough ER has?
ribosomes and cisternae
Smooth ER has?
What is a RER?
studded w/ ribosomes (80S); site of protein synthesis; phospholipid synthesis
What is a SER?
lipid synthesis including phospholipids, sterols, fats; detoxification site; sequester ions in some cells (seen in skeletal muscle)
What is a Golgi Complex/Body/Apparatus?
function: "shipping department" of the cell; modifies products for either secretion or intracellular use; makes lysosomes; vesicle (a little packet)
What is lysosome?
made by golgi complex; remain in the cell; contain hydrolytic enzymes
What is the peroxisomes?
contains catalase which detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
Vesicle is not...?
What is a vacuole?
a puddle of things; no membrane
Which cell has a vesicle?
Which cell has a vacuole?
eukaryote & prokaryote
What is a mitochondrion (pl. mitochondria)?
function: ATP synthesis; has DNA 70S; can divide independently of the rest of cell
Which cell has a mitochondrion?
eukaryotes (it is where most of the ATP is made)
What cell does NOT have a mitochondrion?
What are ribosomes?
site of protein synthesis; composed of large or small subunits; site of units measured in Svedberg units which refer to the sedimentation rates; 70S ribosomes in prokaryotic & eukaryotic mitochondria & chloroplasts; 80S ribosomes in eukaryotic cytoplasm;
What kind of ribosomes are found in prokaryotes & eukaryotic mitochondria and choloroplasts?
What kind of ribosomes do eukaryotes have?
Antibiotics like streptomycin will target?
Which cell is not targeted by streptomycin?
What is the Nucleoid/Nuclear?
region in the cytoplasm where DNA is concentrated; has no nuclear envelope and no histones
What kind of chromosome do nucleoids have?
Where do the chromosomes attach in the prokaryotic nucleoids?
to the cell membrane
What is a plasmid?
small, circular pieces of double-stranded DNA, separate from the chromosome
When may a plasmid be present?
in addition to the single, circular chromosome
What is an advantage of a plasmid?
they may contain 5-100 genes no crucial to the cell's survival but may give the cell a survival advantage like antibiotic resistance, or toxin production
What is important about a plasmid?
important tool in modern biotechnology (also been found in some euk cells)
What is an inclusion (solid)?
What is a metachromatic granule/volutin inclusion (solid)?
storage of inorganic phosphates
What are polysaccharide granules inclusion (solid)?
glycogen and starch storage
What are sulfur granules inclusion (solid)?
What are carboxysomes inclusion (solid)?
CO2 fixation enzymes
What are magnetosomes inclusion (solid)?
iron oxide and hydrogen peroxide catabolism
What is an inclusion inclusion (liquid)?
What are lipid inclusions (liquid)?
What are gas vacuole inclusions (liquid)?
give buoyancy to aquatic photosynthesis prokaryotes
What are endospores?
durable, dormant survival pods produced by certain G+ bacteria like bacillus and clostridium
What is sporulation?
Bacterial spores are not the same as?
What DNA do endospores have?
contains mostly DNA of a little protein & has a tough spore coat, made of keratin, resistant to temperature extremes, desiccation, and pH changes
What happens to endospores when conditions improve?
the spore germinates into its vegetable form and metabolizes nutrients as well
What is the function of a flagella?
motility and has various arrangements
What is a flagella made of?
What does a flagella look like?
long, solid, thread-like strands
What is chemotaxis?
cell movement that occurs in response to chemical stimulus
What is phototaxis?
movement in response to light
Where does the flagellum attach?
to the cell wall by a basal body
Basal bodies in G- cells are more complex than those in?
What is the function of axial filaments?
Where are axial filaments found in prokaryotes?
Where are axial filaments located?
external to the cell walls, covered by outer sheath
What do fimbriae look like?
multiple, short, hollow appendages
What are the function of fimbriaes?
allows the microbe to attach to surfaces and to one another
What is a conjugation pili?
single, long hallow tube in some G- bacteria
What is a mating bridge?
is the "conjugation pili" of G+ cells, but is shorter
Only certain bacteria can make?
What does F stand for?
What are conjugation pili used for?
one-way transfer of DNA; usually a plasmid, rarely an entire chromosome copy
What are the external features of a cell?
What external features does a prokaryotic cell have?
-glycocalyx (capsule & slime layer) EPS (extracellular polymeric substances)
-outside cell wall
-made of extracellular carbs + proteins
What is a capsule?
a neatly organized glycocalyx; prevents phagocytosis; may adhere to surfaces, prevent desiccation, and provide nutrients
What is a slime layer?
is unorganized and loose; allows cell to attach and adhere to surfaces
What is streptococcus mutans?
What is pseudomonas aeruginosa?
emerging opportunistic pathogen of clinical relevance; ex: when nurses had it in their fingernails and transmitted it to 16 babies who died within 2 wks
What do G+ cell walls consist of?
NAG & NAM, 20-80 layers of peptidoglycan, pentaglycine, tetrapeptides, teichoic acid
What is NAG?
What is NAM?
What is pentaglycine?
forms "cross-bridges" to hold NAG-NAM chains together in a single layer
What is a tetrapeptide?
extend vertically from 1 layer so the next NAG-NAM layer can attach
What is teichoic acid?
filaments that strengthen the peptidoglycan; may provide antigenic variation; regulates cation movements
What do G- cell walls consist of?
NAG & NAM; 1 layer of peptidoglycan; tetrapeptides; NO pentaglycine, NO teichoic acid
What is the periplasmic space?
located between cell membrane and outer membrane
What does the periplasmic space consist of?
outer membrane; phospholipid bilayer; lipopolysaccharide (LPS); o antigen (o-polysaccharide)
What becomes an endotoxin when G- cells die?
Cell membrane consists of?
phospholipid bilayer "fluid mosaic model", periphreal and integral (transmembrane) proteins
What can a cell membrane do?
can act as protein transporter channels to allow H2O and nutrients through enzymes, antigenic recognition factors, receptors
What are the membrane functions in prokaryotes?
What is selective permeability?
allows passage of some molecules (semi permeable)
What do the enzymes do in prokaryotes?
What is a chromatophore (prokaryotic thylakoid)?
photosynthetic pigments on foldings
How does a membrane in prokaryotes assist in DNA replication?
by ensuring each daughter cell gets a copy of the chromosome
Damage to the membrane can occur from?
alcohols, quaternary ammonium (detergents), polymyxin antibiotics causes leakage of cell contents
Passive transport processes are powered by?
Active transport processes are powered by?
What is simple diffusion?
movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
What is facilitated diffusion?
solute combines with a transporter protein in the membrane
What is osmosis?
movement (diffusion) of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of lower water concentration
What is plasmolysis?
shrinkage of a cell due to water being removed due to a hypertonic solution.
What is osmotic lysis?
swelling and bursting of a cell in a hypotonic solution
of substances requires a transporter protein and ATP
Example of active transport?
Na+/K+ pump in eukaryotes, H+ proton pump in prokaryotes
What is group translocation (in prokaryotes only)?
substance chemically modified so it cannot exit cell; requires a transporter protein and PEP
What is endocytosis (eukaryotes only)?
phagocytosis and pinocytosis
What is phagocytosis?
pseudopods extend and engulf particles
What is pinocytosis?
membrane folds inward, bringing in fluid and dissolved substances
What is exocytosis (eukaryotes only)?
What are the basic shapes of bacteria?
coccus, bacillus, spirillum
What is the glycocalyx made of?
gelatinous polysaccharide and/or polypeptide covering
What is the function of a pili?
involved in motility and DNA transfer
What is the function of a fimbriae?
help cells adhere to surface
What does a mycoplasmic cell wall consist of?
bacterial genus that naturally lacks cell walls
What does an archaean cell wall consist of?
pseudomurein; they lack peptidoglycan
What do acid-fast cell walls consist of?
they have a layer of mycolic acid outside a thin peptidoglycan layer
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