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77 terms

A & P Chapter 13 & 14 Test Review

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Right and Left Atrium
two upper heart chambers (receiving chambers) are called...
Right and Left Ventricles
two lower heart chambers (discharging chambers) are called...
Myocardium
wall of each heart chamber is composed of cardiac muscle tissue called...
Endocardium
smooth lining of heart chambers
Pericardium
two layered fibrous sac with a lubricated space between the two layers
Visceral Pericardium or Epicardium
the inner layer of the pericardium that hugs the heart is called which two names
Parietal Pericardium
the outer layer of the pericardium is called...
Pericarditis
inflammation of the pericardium
Endocarditis
inflammation of the endocardium
Systole and Diastole (lubb & dubb)
each complete heart beat equals...
Atrioventricular Valves
tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral) are what kind of valves
Aortic Semilunar
found at the beginning of the aorta
Pulmonary Semilunar
found at the beginning of the pulmonary artery
Tricuspid Valve
between right atrium and right ventricle, cusps are flaps of the valves
Pulmonary Valve
between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery
Mitral or Bicuspid Valve
between the left atrium and the left ventricle
Incompetent
valve disorder where valves leak allowing some blood to flow backward into the chamber from which it came
Stenosed
valve disorder where valves are narrower than normal, reducing blood flow
Rheumatic Heart Disease
streptococcal infection, when strep throat isn't treated or antibiotic is not finished this can occur
Myocardial Infarction
heart attack is aka...
Angina Pectoris
severe chest pain caused by inadequate oxygen to the heart, lasts 15-30 min, will resolve with rest or nitroglycerin
Sinoatrial Node
the pacemaker, located in wall of right atrium near opening of superior vena cava; SA
Atrioventricular Node
located on right atrium along lower part of interatrial septum; AV
AV Bundle/Bundle of HIS
located in the septum of the ventricle
Purkinje Fibers
located in the walls of the ventricles, make ventricles contract
P Wave
depolarization (discharge) of the atria; atrium contracting; SA Node has fired off
QRS Complex
depolarization (discharge) of the ventricles; ventricles contracting
T Wave
repolarization (recharge) of the ventricles
Cardiac Dysrhythmia
abnormality of heart rhythm
Bradycardia
slow heart rate; less than 60 bpm
Tachycardia
rapid heart rate; more than 100 bpm
Fibrillation
condition in which cardiac muscle fibers are out of step, producing no effective pumping action; quivers like jello
Congestive Heart Failure
inability of the left ventricle to pump effectively, resulting in congestion of the systemic and pulmonary circulations
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
surgical therapy for coronary artery disease
SA Node, AV Node, Right Bundle Branch, Purkinje Fibers, Bundle of HIS, Left Bundle Branch
Arteries
carries blood away from the heart and toward capillaries
Veins
carries blood toward the heart and away from capillaries
Capillaries
carry blood from the arterioles to the venules, smallest blood vessel in the body, only one layer
Tunica Intima
with arteries it's the smooth inner layer of the blood vessels that consists of endothelial cells
Tunica Media
in arteries it's the smooth, thick muscle; important in blood pressure regulation
Tunica Externa
in arteries it's the thin outer layer of elastic tissue
Tunica Intima
in veins it's the inner layer, valves prevent retrograde movement of blood
Tunica Media
it's the smooth, thin muscle in veins
Tunica Externa
it's the heavy layer of fibrous connective tissue in many veins
Necrosis
dead, decayed tissue
Arteriosclerosis
reduces flow of blood, possibly causing ischemia that may progress to necrosis (gangrene)
Atherosclerosis
type of arteriosclerosis caused by lipids; lipids build up on inside wall of blood vessels and can partially or totally block blood flow
Aneurysm
abnormal widening of arterial wall
Cerebrovascular Accident or Stroke
ischemia of brain tissue caused by embolism or hemorrhage
Varicose Veins
enlarged veins in which blood pools because the valves are not working right, usually in the lower legs
Varices
another name for varicose veins...
Thrombophlebitis
phlebitis accompanied by thrombus formation; may result in fatal pulmonary embolism
Phlebitis
vein inflammation
Arteries
blood pressure exists in all blood vessels and is highest in the...
Veins
blood pressure exists in all blood vessels and is lowest in the...
Blood Volume
the larger the volume, the more pressure is exerted on vessel walls
Strength of Heart Contractions
affect cardiac output, stronger heartbeart increases pressure, weaker beat decreases it
Heart Rate
increased rate increases pressure, decreased rate decreases pressure
Blood Viscosity
less than normal viscosity decreases pressure, more than normal viscosity increases pressure
Resistance to blood flow
affected by many factors, including the vasomotor mechanism
Cardiogenic Shock
caused by heart failure
Hypovolemic Shock
drop in blood volume that causes blood pressure and blood flow to drop, also can be caused by loss on interstitial fluid due to blood loss
Neurogenic Shock
caused by nerve condition that dilates blood vessels and thus reduces blood flow; loss of sympathetic impulses sent to smooth muscles of blood vessels
Anaphylactic Shock
caused by a severe allergic reaction characterized by blood vessel dilation
Septic Shock
results from complications of septicema bacteria
Septicema
toxins in blood from infection
SA Node, AV Node, Bundle of HIS, Bundle Branches, Purkinje Fibers
electrical conduction pathway, 5 of them...
Heart Murmur
abnormal heart sounds often caused by abnormal valves
Endocarditis
inflammation of the membrane lining of the valves and chambers of the heart
Myocarditis
may be viral, bacterial or fungal infection, may be result of systemic disease, inflammation of the myocardium
Pericarditis
inflammation of the pericardium that covers the heart muscle
Ischemia
decreased blood supply to a tissue; decreased supply of oxygen
Cardiac Cycle
one complete heartbeat
Gangrene
happens when necrosis has been going on for a long time
EKG
tells the contracting of the atrium and the ventricles
Arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, vein
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Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava, Right Atrium, Tricuspid Valve, Right Ventricle, Pulmonary Valve, Pulmonary Artery, Pulmonary Veins, Left Atrium, Bicuspid/Mitral Valve, Left Ventricle, Aortic Valve, Aorta