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A & P Chapter 13 & 14 Test Review
Right and Left Atrium
two upper heart chambers (receiving chambers) are called...
Right and Left Ventricles
two lower heart chambers (discharging chambers) are called...
wall of each heart chamber is composed of cardiac muscle tissue called...
smooth lining of heart chambers
two layered fibrous sac with a lubricated space between the two layers
Visceral Pericardium or Epicardium
the inner layer of the pericardium that hugs the heart is called which two names
the outer layer of the pericardium is called...
inflammation of the pericardium
inflammation of the endocardium
Systole and Diastole (lubb & dubb)
each complete heart beat equals...
tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral) are what kind of valves
found at the beginning of the aorta
found at the beginning of the pulmonary artery
between right atrium and right ventricle, cusps are flaps of the valves
between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery
Mitral or Bicuspid Valve
between the left atrium and the left ventricle
valve disorder where valves leak allowing some blood to flow backward into the chamber from which it came
valve disorder where valves are narrower than normal, reducing blood flow
Rheumatic Heart Disease
streptococcal infection, when strep throat isn't treated or antibiotic is not finished this can occur
heart attack is aka...
severe chest pain caused by inadequate oxygen to the heart, lasts 15-30 min, will resolve with rest or nitroglycerin
the pacemaker, located in wall of right atrium near opening of superior vena cava; SA
located on right atrium along lower part of interatrial septum; AV
AV Bundle/Bundle of HIS
located in the septum of the ventricle
located in the walls of the ventricles, make ventricles contract
depolarization (discharge) of the atria; atrium contracting; SA Node has fired off
depolarization (discharge) of the ventricles; ventricles contracting
repolarization (recharge) of the ventricles
abnormality of heart rhythm
slow heart rate; less than 60 bpm
rapid heart rate; more than 100 bpm
condition in which cardiac muscle fibers are out of step, producing no effective pumping action; quivers like jello
Congestive Heart Failure
inability of the left ventricle to pump effectively, resulting in congestion of the systemic and pulmonary circulations
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
surgical therapy for coronary artery disease
SA Node, AV Node, Right Bundle Branch, Purkinje Fibers, Bundle of HIS, Left Bundle Branch
carries blood away from the heart and toward capillaries
carries blood toward the heart and away from capillaries
carry blood from the arterioles to the venules, smallest blood vessel in the body, only one layer
with arteries it's the smooth inner layer of the blood vessels that consists of endothelial cells
in arteries it's the smooth, thick muscle; important in blood pressure regulation
in arteries it's the thin outer layer of elastic tissue
in veins it's the inner layer, valves prevent retrograde movement of blood
it's the smooth, thin muscle in veins
it's the heavy layer of fibrous connective tissue in many veins
dead, decayed tissue
reduces flow of blood, possibly causing ischemia that may progress to necrosis (gangrene)
type of arteriosclerosis caused by lipids; lipids build up on inside wall of blood vessels and can partially or totally block blood flow
abnormal widening of arterial wall
Cerebrovascular Accident or Stroke
ischemia of brain tissue caused by embolism or hemorrhage
enlarged veins in which blood pools because the valves are not working right, usually in the lower legs
another name for varicose veins...
phlebitis accompanied by thrombus formation; may result in fatal pulmonary embolism
blood pressure exists in all blood vessels and is highest in the...
blood pressure exists in all blood vessels and is lowest in the...
the larger the volume, the more pressure is exerted on vessel walls
Strength of Heart Contractions
affect cardiac output, stronger heartbeart increases pressure, weaker beat decreases it
increased rate increases pressure, decreased rate decreases pressure
less than normal viscosity decreases pressure, more than normal viscosity increases pressure
Resistance to blood flow
affected by many factors, including the vasomotor mechanism
caused by heart failure
drop in blood volume that causes blood pressure and blood flow to drop, also can be caused by loss on interstitial fluid due to blood loss
caused by nerve condition that dilates blood vessels and thus reduces blood flow; loss of sympathetic impulses sent to smooth muscles of blood vessels
caused by a severe allergic reaction characterized by blood vessel dilation
results from complications of septicema bacteria
toxins in blood from infection
SA Node, AV Node, Bundle of HIS, Bundle Branches, Purkinje Fibers
electrical conduction pathway, 5 of them...
abnormal heart sounds often caused by abnormal valves
inflammation of the membrane lining of the valves and chambers of the heart
may be viral, bacterial or fungal infection, may be result of systemic disease, inflammation of the myocardium
inflammation of the pericardium that covers the heart muscle
decreased blood supply to a tissue; decreased supply of oxygen
one complete heartbeat
happens when necrosis has been going on for a long time
tells the contracting of the atrium and the ventricles
Arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, vein
Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava, Right Atrium, Tricuspid Valve, Right Ventricle, Pulmonary Valve, Pulmonary Artery, Pulmonary Veins, Left Atrium, Bicuspid/Mitral Valve, Left Ventricle, Aortic Valve, Aorta