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Insect larva that kills its host by consuming completely the host's soft tissues before pupation or metamorphosis into an adult. (ch. 15 pg 265)


Killing and consuming one's own kind; intraspecific predation. (ch. 15 pg 265)


Feeding on plant material.
(ch. 15 pg 265)


Organism that feeds of living material.
(ch. 15 pg 265)

Threshold of Security

Point in local population density at which the predator turns its attention to other prey because of harvesting efficiency; the segment of prey population below the threshold is relatively secure from predation.
(ch. 15 pg 274)

Search Image

Mental image formed in predators enabling them to find more quickly and to concentrate on a common type of prey.
(ch. 15 pg 274)

Aggregative Response

Behaviour in which consumers spend most of the time in food patches with the greatest density of prey.
(ch. 15 pg 276)


Relative to foraging, strategy in which the decision maker is satisfied after meeting some minimum requirement.
(ch. 15 pg 281)

Risk-Sensitive Foraging

Decision by a forging animal to revisit a patch that gives it a constant rate of return or visit a new patch where the return is unknown.
(ch. 15 pg 281)

Expected Energy Budget Rule

Applicable to foraging animals, who are expected to be risk prone if their energy budget is negative, risk averse if it is positive.
(ch. 15 pg 282)

Predation Risk

Balancing by an organism of foraging profitability in a foraging area against the risk of being eaten by a predator.
(ch. 15 pg 282)

Chemical Defense (Plants)

A first line defense by plants against herbivores.
(ch 16. pg 286)

Induced Defense (Plants)

The synthesis and transport by plants of toxic secondary substances to the site of herbivore attack.
(ch. 16 pg 287)


Resemblance of one organism to another of to an object in the environment evolved to deceive predators.
(ch. 16 pg 288)

Structural Defenses

Some of the least costly defenses available to plants are structures that make penetration be predators difficult, if not impossible.
(ch. 16 pg 289)

Predator Satiation (Plants & Animals)

A more subtle defense among plants and animals is the physiological timing of reproduction so that a maximum number of offspring are produced within one short period of time.
(ch. 16 pg 290, 297)

Chemical Defense (Animals)

The means by which many groups of animals protect themselves from predators using chemicals such as pheromones and strong odorous secretions.
(ch. 16 pg 293)

Warning Coloration

Animals that possess toxicity or other chemical defenses possess warning colorations such as bold colours with patterns to serve as a warning to predators.
(ch. 16 pg 295)

Cryptic Coloration

A defense that enables prey to hide from predators by blending into the background, resembling objects, or flash coloration in which they display a visible colour to distract, or disorient predators.
(ch. 16 pg 296)

Armour and Weapons

Physical features used for protection against predators.
(ch. 16 pg 296)

Behavioural Defenses

A natural defense in which animals behave, in a manner that protects them from predators.
(ch. 16 pg 296)

Attack-Abatement Effect

Anti-predator advantage of group living by prey species that reduces individual risk of predation.
(ch. 16 pg 297)

Hunting Tactics

Predators have 3 general methods of hunting:
-Sit and wait, or ambush
-Search and pursuit
(ch. 16 pg 297)

Aggressive Mimicry

Resemblance of a predator or parasite to a harmless species to deceive potential prey.
(ch. 16 pg 298)

Intraguild Predation

Predation among species occupying the same trophic level and using a similar food resource.
(ch. 16 pg 300)

Alternative Prey

Predators switch from their primary prey to secondary when the former is scarce.

Faculative Predator

Has a preference for a specific prey.

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