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26 terms

Genetics

STUDY
PLAY
Gregor Johann Mendel
used pea plants to study genetics
Sexual Reproduction
2 parent plants, fertilize each other
Asexual Reproduction
1 parent plant, self fertilization
Key: inherits all traits from a single parent flower
it produces offspring identical to itself
Trait
a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
2 alleles per trait
Hybrid
offspring of parents with different traits
P Generation
parents, original plants
F1
first set of offspring, first filial
F2
second set of offspring, second filial
Biological Inheritance
controled by factors that are passed from one generation to the next
Allele
the 2 forms, one from mom, one from dad
(ex. Bb or AA)
2 alleles per trait
Principle of Dominance
some alleles dominant, others recessive
Gametes
sex cells, sperm and egg
Male: xy
Female: xx
Segregation
alleles must split during gamete formation
Law of Segregation
a pair of factors is seperated during gamete formation
Law of Independent Assortment
factors seperate independant of one another during gamete formation
Probability
the likelihood that a particular thing will happen
Heterozygous
2 different alleles for a particular trait, hybrid for a particular trait
Homozygous
2 identical alleles for a particular trait, true breeding for a particular trait, offspring identical to parent
Phenotype
physical appearence of a organism
Genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
5 steps for a punnet square
1) id info
2) Pheno Parents
3) Geno Parents
4) Geno Kids
5) Pheno Kids
Classic or Mendellian Dominant/Recessive
some alleles dominant, others recessive
2 possible phenotypes
Codominance
neither allele is dominant
3 possible phenotypes - both alleles are shown
ex. B=black b=white
BB- black
bb- white
Bb- marbled (Black and white)
Incomplete Dominance
alleles blend for 3rd phenotype
3 possible phenotypes
ex. R=red r=white
RR- red
rr- white
Rr- pink
Dihybrid Cross
It is basically a punnet square that tracks 2 different traits and gives the genotype of the offspring
Monohybrid Cross
a regular punnet square
it tracks 1 trait and gives the genotype of the offspring