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Gregor Johann Mendel

used pea plants to study genetics

Sexual Reproduction

2 parent plants, fertilize each other

Asexual Reproduction

1 parent plant, self fertilization
Key: inherits all traits from a single parent flower
it produces offspring identical to itself


a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
2 alleles per trait


offspring of parents with different traits

P Generation

parents, original plants


first set of offspring, first filial


second set of offspring, second filial

Biological Inheritance

controled by factors that are passed from one generation to the next


the 2 forms, one from mom, one from dad
(ex. Bb or AA)
2 alleles per trait

Principle of Dominance

some alleles dominant, others recessive


sex cells, sperm and egg
Male: xy
Female: xx


alleles must split during gamete formation

Law of Segregation

a pair of factors is seperated during gamete formation

Law of Independent Assortment

factors seperate independant of one another during gamete formation


the likelihood that a particular thing will happen


2 different alleles for a particular trait, hybrid for a particular trait


2 identical alleles for a particular trait, true breeding for a particular trait, offspring identical to parent


physical appearence of a organism


genetic makeup of an organism

5 steps for a punnet square

1) id info
2) Pheno Parents
3) Geno Parents
4) Geno Kids
5) Pheno Kids

Classic or Mendellian Dominant/Recessive

some alleles dominant, others recessive
2 possible phenotypes


neither allele is dominant
3 possible phenotypes - both alleles are shown
ex. B=black b=white
BB- black
bb- white
Bb- marbled (Black and white)

Incomplete Dominance

alleles blend for 3rd phenotype
3 possible phenotypes
ex. R=red r=white
RR- red
rr- white
Rr- pink

Dihybrid Cross

It is basically a punnet square that tracks 2 different traits and gives the genotype of the offspring

Monohybrid Cross

a regular punnet square
it tracks 1 trait and gives the genotype of the offspring

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