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724 terms

muscles

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supraspinatus
origin is supraspinatus fossa of scapula and insertion is greater tubercle of humerus. helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus
coracobrachialis
flexes humerus, antagonist of supraspinatus
triceps brachii
extends arm at elbow
biceps brachii
powerful flexor of forearm; origin is glenoid process and coracoid process of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity
brachialis
flexes elbow
palmaris longus
flexes wrist
extensor carpi radialis
abducts wrist and flexes hand at wrist, origin is medial epicondyle of humerus, insertion is base of 2 and 3 metacarpals
supinator
rotates forearm laterally
sartorius
abducts and laterally rotates femur, origin is iliac crest, insertion is proximal tibia/patella
gracilis
adducts femur/thigh
rectus femoris
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
vastus lateralis
part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee
gluteus maximus
heaviest muscle in body, extends/straightens leg at hip during walking
biceps femoris
part of hamstrings group, flexes knee and extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally
semitendinosus
part of hamstrings group
semimembranosus
part of hamstrings group
gastrocnemius
plantar flexes foot, flexes leg at knee when foot is dorsiflexed
tibialis anterior
dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
soleus
plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus
longissimus capitus
helps maintain posture, extends head and rotates face/head to same side
hernia
protrusion of fat or intestine from abdominal wall
abdominal aponeuroses
tendons of various abdominal muscles that interlace at midline
auricular
wiggle ears
orbicularis oculi
blink eye, smile
zygomaticus major
smiling muscle, raises corners of mouth upwards
orbicularis oris
spincter muscle used for "puckering up" and whistling
mentalis
protrudes lower lip and wrinkles chin, sad
buccinator
compresses cheek, allowing for rapid changes in volume of mouth cavity
platysma
sheet-like muscle in neck that pulls mouth (jaw) downward
nasalis
changes size of nasal openings
digastric
opens jaw
sternocleidomastoid
rotates face to opposite side, laterally flexes head to same side, origin is manubrium of sternum, insertion is mastoid process of temporal bone
rectus abdominus
major spine flexor, forms 6 pack and translates to "straight muscle of abdomen"
external oblique
origin is lower 8 ribs, compresses abdomen; most external of abdominal muscles
internal oblique
compresses abdomen, middle layer; fibers point up to the head
transverse abdominus
compresses abdomen, deepest layer of ab muscles
linea alba
midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet
serratus anterior
pulls scapula downward and forward
trapezius
origins are occipital bone and spines of cervical/thoracic vertebrae. insertions are clavicle and spine/acromion process of scapula. elevates scapula, carries tension
rhomboid major
adducts scapula
pectoralis major
prime mover for shoulder flexion and adduction
latissimus dorsi
adducts and extends upper arm/shoulder, rotates humerus medially
deltoid
prime mover for upper arm/shoulder abductor, flexes/extends humerus
Surface area of integumentary system
15-20 square feet
1 square inch of the integumentary system contains
>3 million cells, 15 ft of blood vessels, 4 yards nerves, 650 sweat glands, 100 oil glands, 1500 sensory receptors
Hypodermis
It is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. Types of cells that are found in the hypodermis are Fibroblasts, Adipose Cells, and Macrophages
Epidermis and dermis
Epidermis is superficial epithelium, dermis is underlying area of connective tissues
Functions of integumentary system
Thermoregulation, protection (physical and immune), sensory (in dermis and hypodermis), excretion (sensible and insensible), storage (nutrients, esp. adipose), blood reservoir (10% of vessels), synthesis (vitamin d3 and melanin), absorption (gases, UV light, water, vitamins)
Layers of the epidermis
Bottom to top: Stratum Basale, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Corneum
Characteristics of Epidermis
Stratified squamous epithelium, outermost layers dead, most have 4 layers but soles of feet and palms of hands have 5, avascular (no blood vessels)
Stratum basale (stratum germinativum)
In contact with dermis, stem cells; mitosis, replace more superficial cells. Keratinocytes and melanocytes (produce keratine and menanin)
Stratum spinosum
8-10 layers, keratin causes spiny appearance, little mitosis
Stratum granulosum
Granular, 3-5 layers, flattened; accumulating proteins especially carotene
Stratum lucidum
only in soles or palms, 3-5 layers, clear with no nuclei, flat and dead
Stratum corneum
Most superficial, "horn-like" cornified or keratinized, 15-30 layers flat and dead, 15-30 days from stratum basale then 10-14 days until lost, tightly connected
3 pigments of skin
melanin, carotene, hemoglobin (not resident)
Melanin
only melanin is made in the skin. Melanin can be gradated into many different shades. It is this ability of Melanin that gives different races different skin coloration. A special type of cells known as melanocytes produces melanin, Melanocytes are primarily found in the stratum germinativum. Whenever the skin has had an exposure to sunlight, the stratum germinativum cells, phagocytize or eat the skin pigment melanin. After an amount of time, melanin accumulates within the stratum germinativum cells, and tends to form a protective pigment "umbrella". These "umbrellas of melanin pigment shields DNA from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation
Carotene
has a yellow-orange color and is primarily found in the palms and the soles
Hemoglobin
gives fair-skinned people a pink hue to their skin due to the lack of melanin in the epidermis, which makes it almost transparent
Cyanosis
blue, the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface
Albinism
melanocytes can't sythesize melanin
Leukoplakia or vitiligo
condition of the mouth that involves the formation of white leathery spots on the mucous membranes of the tongue and inside of the mouth, vitiligo is similar but not in the mouth. possibly auto-immune
Properties of Dermis
vascularized (temperature, blood pressure, nutrients, metabolic waste), glands, follicles and receptors
Papillary layer
Top 1/5 of dermis, most is areolar connective tissue, dermal papillae "fingerprints"
Reticular layer
Collagen, elastin, strong and stretchable. If stretched too far, it tears causing striae or linea albicans (stretch marks). It's innervated, has effectors (muscles, glands) and receptors
Hypodermis
Subcutaneous layer, attaches dermis to underlying tissue, adipose, areolar connective tissues (energy reserve and padding), vascular
Accessory structures of integumentary system
Hair (pili), glands, and nails
Pili
for protection from cold, sun, particles, produced by hair bulb and enclosed in hair follicle
Glands in integumentary system
In the dermis, all are exocrine. Sebaceous (oil) glands secrete sebum that softens and lubricates skin and hair. Sudoriferous (sweat glands) control temperature, excretes some waste materials (eccrine glands are all over, apocrine glands (in axillary, pubic and nipple regions), mammary glands, ceruminous glands (produce cerumen or earwax)
Nails
protect digits, plates of keratinezed epidermal cells
Abrasion
Scrape or surface damage, stratum basale cells migrate, mitosis
Deep wound healing (injury beyond stratum basale)
Inflammatory phase (blood clot forms), migratory phase (cells migrate), proliferative phase (continues), maturation phase (scab falls off)
Thermoregulation
Negative feedback, thermoreceptors to brain, temperature control center sends message to effectors
Cold thermoregulation
Shiver (ATP produces heat): shivering thermogenesis. Blood moves deeper. Arrector pili raised (goose bumps) smooth muscle
Hot thermoregulation
Perspire, evaporation cools skin, vessels dilate, blood nears surface of skin
Burns
First degree (surface), second degree (epidermis, maybe upper part of dermis), third degree (subcutaneous, if extensive may need grafting)
Partial Thickness and full thickness
1st and 2nd degree burns are "partial thickness", 3rd are full thickness
Rule of nines, lund and browder chart
Determine percentage of body burned in an injury
Aging of integumentary system
Thinner and more prone to damage, fewer immune cells, less vitamin D produced, decrease in melanocyte activity (gray hair), less secretion, skin dries easily, sweat glands less active, fewer capillaries to lose heat, dermis loses elasticity and strength (wrinkles)
Neoplasms (tumors)
Benign or malignant
Basal cell carcinoma
Most common skin cancer, rarely fatal, but can be disfiguring
Squamous cell carcinoma
carcinoma type that may occur in many different organs, including the skin, mouth, esophagus, prostate, lungs, and cervix. It is a malignant tumor of epithelium that shows squamous cell differentiation.
Malignant melanoma
worst kind, most rare but deadliest
Kaposi's sarcoma
bruise like cancer
Acne
Blocked sebaceous glands
Athelete's foot (tinea pedis)
fungus of foot
Contusion
bruise
Decubitis (pressure) ulcer
Bedsore
Dermatitis
skin inflammation
Erythema
Reddening of skin
Fibrosis
formation of scar tissue
Impetigo
infection caused by staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria
Jaundice
Liver can't excrete bile, get rid of bilirubin, skin and whites of eyes are yellow
Lesion
Wounded or damaged area
Psoriasis
Chronic, noninfectious, raised, reddened round plaques covered by silvery white scales
Ringworm
fungus
Shingles
chickenpox virus
Urticaria or hives
itching from allergy, stress or drug reactions
Wart
virus
deltoids
shoulder
biceps
arm
quadriceps
thigh
pectoralis major
chest
rectus abdominis
stomach
trapezius
upper back
triceps
back of arm
latissimus dorsi
back
gluteus maximus
butt
hamstrings
back of thigh
gastrocnemius
calf
Gastrocnemius
Origin: Femoral condyles
Gastrocnemius
Insertion: Calcaneous via calcaneal tendon
Gastrocnemius
Action: Flexes knee; plantar flexes, inverts, and adducts foot
Gastrocnemius
Innervation: Tibial Nerve
Plantaris
Origin: lateral supracondylar ridge of femur
Plantaris
Insertion: posterior portion of calcaneous
Plantaris
Action: flexes knee; plantar flexes foot
Plantaris
Innervation: Tibial Nerve
Soleus
Origin: head and proximal fibula, posteromedial tibia
Soleus
Insertion: calcaneous via calcanal tendon
Soleus
Action: Planter flexes, inverts, and adducts foot
Soleus
Innervation: Sciatic Nerve, tibial branch
Tibialis posterior
Origin: proximal tibia and fibula, interosseous membrane
Tibialis posterior
Insertion: Tarsals and metatarsal 2-4
Tibialis posterior
Action: Plantar flexes, inverts, and adducts food
tibialis posterior
Innervation: Sciatic nerve, tibial branch
Peroneus brevis
Origin: midlateral margin of fibula
Peroneus brevis
Insertion: base of metatarsal 5
Peroneus brevis
Action: Everts and plantar flexes foot
Peroneus brevis
Innveration: superficial peroneal nerve
frontalis
o: cranial aponeurosis; i: skin of eyebrows; raises brows
orbicularis oculi
o: frontal bone; i: tissue around eyes; blinks and closes eyes
orbicularis oris
o: mandible and maxilla; i: skin and muscle around mouth; closes and protrudes lips
buccinator
o: maxilla and mandible; i: orbicularis oris; holds food in mouth, sucks in cheeks
zygomaticus
o: zygomatic bone; i: skin and muscle at corner of lips; raises corners of mouth
masseter
o: temporal bone; i: mandible; closes jaw
temporalis
o: temporal bone; i: mandible; closes jaw
occipitalis
o: occiptal bone; i: scalp; pulls scalp posteriorly
platysma
o: connective tissue covering chest muscles; i: tissue around mouth; pulls corner of mouth down
sternocleidomastoid
o: sternum, clavicle; i: temporal bone; flexes neck, rotates head
pectoralis major
o:sternum, clavicle, 1-6 ribs ; i: proximal humerous ; adducts and flexes humerus
intercostals muscles
o: bottom half of ribs ; i: top half of ribs ; raise and depress ribcage for breathing
rectus abdominis
o: pubis; i: sternum ; flexes vertebral column
internal oblique
o: illiac crest; i: last 3 ribs; flexes and rotates vertebral column
external oblique
o: lower 8 ribs; i: illiac crest; flexes and rotates vertebral column
trapezius
o: occipital bone and all cervical and thoracic vertebrae; i: scalpular spine and clavicle; extends neck and adducts
latissimus dorsi
o: lower spine and illiac crest; i: proximal humerus; extends and adducts humerus
erector spinea
o: illiac crests, ribs 3-12, vertebrae; i: rubs thoracic and cervical vertebrae; extends back
iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
o: cranium; i: sacrum; back extensors and control bending actions @ waist
deltoid
o: scalpular spine and clavicle; i: humerus (deltoid tuberosity); abducts the arm
Masseter
powerful chewing muscle
Buccinator
compresses cheeks
Orbicularis oculi
muscle that allows winking, blinking
Orbicularis oris muscle
muscle that allows you to move your lips
Zygomaticus
smiling muscle
Pectoralis major
abducts humerus
Platysmus
Neck muscle, helps frown
Rectus abdominis
flexes veribral column, runs down medial stmoach
External oblique
broad, thin muscle that cover superior abdomen
Trapezius
shoulder muscle that moves scapula
Biceps bracii
flex the elbow joint
Triceps bracii
extend the elbow joint
Biceps Femoris
flex the knee
Gastrocnemius
planter flextion of the foot, between knee and ankle
Sarcomere
The smallest functional unit of muscle tissue
Myofibril
A series of sarcomeres; several are contained within one muscle fiber
Muscle Fiber
A single muscle tissue cell
Fascicle
A bundle of muscle fibers
Muscle
Contains several fascicles
Thick Filaments
Myosin proteins
Thin Filaments
Actin proteins
Titin
Connects from M line to Z line
Active Tension
Tension due to muscle contraction
Passive Tension
Tension due to muscle stretch
Agonist
The main muscle used to produce a movement
Antagonist
Muscles that oppose the movement of the agonist
Synergist
Muscles that assist the action of the agonist
Fixator
Muscles that stabilize proximally to allow the agonist to work effectively
Type I Muscle Fiber
Slow twitch; built for endurance; red
Type II A Muscle Fiber
Fast twitch; can be trained to act like I or II B; red
Type II B Muscle Fiber
Fast twitch; built for power; white
Muscle Spindle
Lie parallel to the muscle fibers; detect changes in muscle length and speed
Golgi Tendon Organ
Located in the tendon, both at muscle origin and insertion; detect changes in tendon tension
Paresis
Muscle weakness or partial paralysis
Paralysis
Complete loss of muscle function
Hemiplegia
Partial or complete loss of muscle function on one side of the body
Paraplegia
Paralysis of all or some of the muscles in th trunk and lower extremities
Tetraplegia
Paralysis of the trunk and LE's and some or all of the UE's
Atrophy
Loss of muscle mass due to lack of use or loss of innervation
iliocostalis
O: posterior iliac crest of os coxa; I: posterior angle of ribs
gluteus maximus
O: dorsal ilium, sacrum, coccyx; I: gluteal tuberosity
rectus femoris
O: anterior inferior iliac spine; I: tibial tuberosity
gastrocnemius
O: 2 heads: medial and lateral epicondyle of fibula; I: calcaneal tuberosity
peroneus brevis
O: lateral shaft of fibula; I: 5th metatarsal tendon
popliteus
O: lateral epicondyle of femur; I: posterior surface of tibia (Proximal)
pectineus
O: superior ramus of pubis; I: tibial tuberosity, medial side
sartorius
O: anterior superior iliac spine; I: tibial tuberosity, medial side
vastus medialis
O: intertrochanteric line and linea aspera of femur; I: tibial tuberosity
vastus intermedius
O: anterolateral surface of femur; I: tibial tuberosity
vastus lateralis
O: greater trochanter and linea aspera; I: tibial tuberosity
biceps femoris
O: 2 heads: long-ischial tuberosity, short: linea aspera of femur; I: head of fibula
semimembranosus
O: ischial tuberosity; I: posterior surface of medial condyle of tibia
semitendinosus
O: ischial tuberosity; I: proximal medial surface of tibia
Anatomy
The study of structure of organisms
Gross
What we can see with the naked eye
Microscopic
Need a microscope to see it
Applied
Use knowledge of anatomy to help in diagnosis/treatment
Physiology
Study of how things function
Median Plane
Cuts body in half longitudally
Medial
Close to the midline
Lateral
Away from the midline
Sagittal Plane
Slices that are parallel to the median plane
Transverse Plane
Right angles to the median plane
Cranial
Towards the head
Caudal
Towards the tail
Rostral
On the head, towards the nose
Dorsal Plane
Cuts body into upper and lower halves
Dorsal
Towards the back
Ventral
Towards the belly
Palmar
Caudal surface of front legs from wrist to toes
Plantar
Caudal surface of the hind legs from the ankle to the toes
Superficial
Near the surface of the body
Deep
Near the center of the body
Proximal
Near to the body proper
Distal
Farther away from the body
The Cell
The basic unit of living things
Tissue
Specialized groups of cells with the same function
Organ
Groups of tissues that work together
System
Groups of organs working together to do a common job
Epithelial
Covers and lines the body; skin, mucous membranes...
Connective
Binds other tissues together, protection and leverage
Elastic
Stretches and returns to original shape... around abdomen and walls of arteries
Collagen
Fibrous tissue that adds strength to other tissues; gelatin, capsule around muscles
Tendon
Strong dense tissue that connects muscle to bone
Ligament
Strong dense tissue that connects bone to bone
Adipose
Fat storage. White in most animals. Yellow in Gurnsey cattle and horses. Brown in newborns
Cartilage
Gristle type tissue. Discs between vertebrae, ear, joint surface
Bone
Calcified cartilage. Living tissue constantly being remodled
Muscle
Used for movement- skeletal, striated and cardiac
Nervous
Conducts never signals; found in the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
Cranium
Surrounds the brain
Thoracic
Surrounds the heart and lungs
Abdomino-Pelvic
Surrounds all the organs in the 'belly,' intestine, uterus, kidneys etc...
Osteology
The study of bones
Composition of Bone
1/3 Organic matter. 2/3 Ca++ and Phosphorus hydorapatite
Long
More length than width, used for locomotion ex: femur, humerus
Flat
Protection, skull bones and ribs
Short
More 'square' shock absorbers, wrist and ankle bones
Irregular
Unpaired bones. Ex: vertebrae, sternebrae, os penis, few skull bones
Periosteum
Outer most fibrous layer that supplies blood and nerves to the bone
Compact
Beneath periosteum, very dense, makes up shaft of bone
Cancellous
Spongy, light weight found near ends of bone for shock absorption
Marrow
Fills up the center of most living bones, where blood cells are made
Red Marrow
Active bone marrow
Yellow Marrow
Fatty marrow that can become active
White Marrow
Hard fatty marrow, cannot become active
Gelatinous Marrow
Broken down marrow, in old and starving animals
Endosteum
Inner layer of the compact an cancellous bone
Chondroclasts
Cells that beak down cartilage
Osteogenesis
Bone formation
Membrane Bone
Made as fibrous membrane templates are calcified in the fetus (skull bones-fontanel)
Cartilage Bone
Made from cartilage bars in the fetus that become calcified over time
Osteoblast
Cells that make bone
Osteoclast
Cells that break down bone
Osteocytes
Osteoblasts that have been surrounded by bone, and are trapped
Diaphysis
Shaft of the bone
Epiphysis
End of the bone
Epiphyseal Plate
Growth plate, made of cartilage, gradually ossifies
Scapula
Shoulder blade, flat bone, no boney attachment to rest of skeleton in most species
Collarbone
Boney attachment to scapula in humans
Vestigial Clavicle
Boney attachment to scapula in cats
Clavicle
Boney attachment to scapula in birds, aka the wishbone
Spine
Ridge down middle of scapula, can palpate in thin animals
Acromion
Knob at end of scapula. Can feel in large animals, help guide injections
Glenoid Cavity
Articulates with humerus to form shoulder joint
Humerus
Upper arm bone, long bone, 2 ends with shaft in middle
Head
Smooth, rounded proximal end of humerus that articulates with glenoid cavity
Greater Tubercle
Non-articular knob lateral to head. Point of shoulder when palpating joint
Condyles
Rounded knobs at distal end of humerus that articulate with radius and ulna to form elbow joint
Olecranon Fossa
On caudal surface of distal humerus. Depression where anconeal process of olecranon locks when elbow is locked in extended position
Radius and Ulna
2 bones of forearm. Side by side. Fused together in cows and horses. If fused, flexibility is lost
Pronate
Turning appendage down (toward ground)
Supinate
Turning appendage up (toward sky)
Olecranon
Proximal part of ulna. Point of elbow. Funny bone. Has anconeal process that fits into the olecranon fossa
Carpal Bones
Wrist bones. Front 'knee' of horse and other large animals. 6-8 short bones in 2 rows
Metacarpals
Hand bones. 5 bones numbered from 1-5, medial to lateral
Phalanges
Digits or fingers. 5 in dogs cats and humans. Each digit has 3 bones except thumb (digit one or dewclaw) which has 2
Phalanx
3 bones in each digit (except digit 1), known as P-1, P-2, P-3, or proximal, middle and distal. P-3 has the nail attached to it
Onychectomy
Dewclaw procedure
Polydactyly
Extra fingers/toes
Cannon Bone
Metacarpals 3 & 4 are fused together to form this in ruminants
Dewclaws
MC-2 and MC-5 form these in ruminants
Phalanges
Ruminants walk on their finger tips, each 'finger' has p-1, p-2, and p-3/ p-3 has hoof attached to it
Cloven Hoofed
2 toed animal
Syndactyly
"mulefoot" in cattle, Recessive gene, foot looks like a horses foot, toes are fused together
Cannon Bone
Metacarpal 3 forms this in equines
Splint Bones
MC-2 and MC-4 form these in equines. They are attached to the cannon bone by ligaments that can get inflamed and swell up to make blemishes
Chestnut
Remnant of MC-1 forms this on the medial side of the leg in equines
Ergot
Remnant of MC-5 forms this on the palmar surface of the lower leg in equines
Phalanges
Equines walk on their middle finger, which has P-1, P-2 and P-3, P-3 has the hoof attached to it
Fetlock Bone
The name of P-1 in large animals
Pastern Bone
The name of P-2 in large animals
Coffin Bone
The name of P-3 in large animals
Sesamoids
Extra bones which are located in tendons on the caudal surface of the limb to give them extra leverage and strength
Navicular Disease
Degeneration of the navicular bone over time that leads to chronic lameness
Agonist
Muscle directly responsible for the movement
Antagonist
Muscle acts in opposition to the agonist, often lengthening to do so
Isometric Contraction
Muscle contracts but there is no movement, muscle stays the same length
Isotonic Contraction
Involves movement of the muscle contracting
Concentric Contraction
Muscle contracts isotonically by shortening
Eccentric Contraction
Muscle contracts isotonically by lengthening
Biceps Brachii
Upper arm muscle that causes elbow flexion
Triceps Brachii
Upper arm muscle that causes elbow extension
Illiopsoas
Anterior muscle that causes hip flexion
Adductors
Muscles that cause adduction
Abductors
Muscles that cause abduction
Gastrocnemius
Calf muscle that causes plantaflexion e.g. jumping
Tibialis Anterior
Shin muscle that causes dorsiflexion e.g bringing toes towards the shin
Quadriceps
Anterior thigh muscle that causes extension at the knee
Hamstrings
Posterior thigh muscle that causes knee flexion
Gluteus Maximus
Posterior muscle that causes hip extension
Deltoid
Shoulder muscle that causes shoulder abduction
Anterior Deltoid
Front part of shoulder muscle that causes shoulder flexion and horizontal adduction
Posterior Deltoid
Rear part of shoulder muscle that causes shoulder extension and horizntal abduction
Pectoralis Major
Chest muscle that causes shoulder flexion, adduction and horizontal adduction
Latissimus Dorsi
Back muscle that causes shoulder extension, adduction, horizontal abduction and horizontal abduction
Pelvic Limb
Hind Leg
Os Coxae
Hip, pelvis
Pelvic Symphysis
Where the two halves of the pelvis join ventrally
Sacroiliac Joint
Where the two halves of the pelvis articulate dorsally
Ilium
Largest of the three bones of the pelvis. Cranial portion of each ox coxae. wing, body
Tuber coxae
Lateral most projection, hook bone
Tuber sacrale
Dorsal-medial portion that articulates with the sacrum
Pubis
Smallest of the three bones. Forms much of the ventral floor of the pelvic canal. Has a hole in it called the obturator foramen which make it more light weight. two halves meet at the pelvic symphysis
Ishium
Most caudal of the three bones. Caudal prominence is called the tuber ischii.
Obturator Foramen
Holes in the pubis of the pelvis that make it more light weight
Tuber Ischii
Caudal prominence of the Ishium
Acetabulum
Hip socket. Formed by all three bones of the pelvis. Where the femur articulates
Femur
Long bone. Head articulates with the acetabulum. Distally it articulates with the patella.
Greater Trochanter
Large knob on the proximal end of the femur for muscle attachments
Neck
Between the head and shaft of the femur, sawed off to relieve symptoms of hip dysplasia
Stifle Joint
Formed by the articulation of the femur, patella and tibia
Trochlea
Patella rides in this groove of the distal femur
Patellar Luxation
If the trochlea is not deep enough , the patella can pop out of the groove and cause lameness, termed _________.
Tibia
Shin bone. On medial side of the leg. Bears most of the weight
Fibula
Lateral to the tibia. Sort of like the ulna, can extend from stifle to tarsus, or may be fused with tibia, or only partially present like in the horse
Tarsus
Hock joint or ankle. Cuboidal bones similar to wrist bones. Usually 7 bones.
Calcaneus
Fibular tarsal bone (most important), heel bone/hock, large projection caudally, the achilles tendon attaches to it
Metatarsal Bones
Similar to metacarpal bones. Foot bones
Dogs & Cats
MT 2-5, MT 1 is usually absent unless a dewclaw is present
Ruminants
MT 3 and MT 4 are fused like in the front leg
Equines
MT 3 forms the cannon bone. MT 2 and MT 4 form the splint bones
Coxofemoral Luxation
Dislocated hip
Hip Dysplasia
Shallow acetabulum and deformed femoral head... leads to arthritis, genetic in larger breeds, especially german shepards
Flexion
To bend a joint
Extension
To straighten a joint
Abduct
To move a limb away from the body
Adduct
To move a limb back towards the body
Vertebrae
3 main parts, body, and arch- 2 halves. All of them lined up end to end form the vertebral canal
Body
Solid, rounded mass of bone that makes up the ventral part of vertebrae
Arch
Has 2 halves that curve upwards to meet on the midline. They are dorsal and lateral boundaries of the vertebral foramen
Process
Projections from the vertebrae
Spinous Process
Dorsal or ventral projections
Transverse Process
Project laterally
Cervical
Vertebrae of the neck, most cranial
Thoracic
Vertebrae of the chest or thorax. Have large dorsal spines that tend to slant caudally. Small transverse process that articulate with the ribs
Lumbar
Vertebrae of the small of the back. Have large transverse process, may be flexible in some species (dog and cat) or stiff (cow)
Sacral
Vertebrae that articulates with the pelvis. Usually fused together in most species. Articulate with tuber sacrale of the ilium. Has dorsal process
Coccygeal
Vertebrae of the tail. Variable number
C-7/ T-13/ L-7/ S-3
Numbers of vertebrae in the dog and cat
C-7/T-13/ L-6/ S-5
Numbers of vertebrae in the cow
C-7/ T-18/ L-6/ S-5
Numbers of vertebrae in the horse
Atlas
C-1, Has large transverse processes called wings and no dorsal process... articulates with the skull
Axis
C-2, has large, broad dorsal spinous projections and cranial projection that fits into C-1
Dens
Cranial projection of the axis that fits into the atlas
Ribs
Same number as thoracic vertebrae. Articulate dorsally with the thoracic vertebrae, articulate ventrally with the sternum. Ventral portion is cartilage
True Ribs
Articulate with the sternum on their own
False Ribs
Are joined to the sternum by cartilage
Floating Ribs
Never join the sternum
Sternum
Makes up the floor of the chest (ventral) Made of individual sternebrae, that have cartilage between them. Eventually all fuse together with age, typically 7 or 8 found in common species
Manubrium
First sterebrae, at the thoracic inlet
Xiphoid
Last sternebrae
Crainium
Bones that surround the cranial cavity
Facial Bones
Bones that make up the face that dont surround the cranial cavtiy
Occipital Bones
Back of head. Caudal bone of skull, articulates with atlas, Has large opening that allows the spinal cord to leave the brain to enter the spinal canal
Foramen magmum
Large opening in the occipital bone
Parietal Bones
More rostral to occipital bones
Frontal Bones
More rostral to parietal bones, make up caudal part of eye socket, have large sinus under them that communicate with the nasal passages, location from which horns and antlers grow
Temporal Bones
Make up sides of head, has three sections
Temporal Bulla
Bulb like cavity that contains the middle ear where the stirrup, anvil and hammer are
Petrous Temporal Bone
Contains the inner ear
Mandible
Has 2 halves, they join at the symphysis which is a common area for fractures, articulates with the temporal bone to form temporo-mandibular-joint. contains all lower teeth
Incisive Bone
Most rostral bone of upper jaw-contains upper incisors and forms part of the hard palate
Maxilla
Forms most of the upper jaw, and part of the hard palate, contains upper molars, premolars, and canines
Palatine Bones
Form most caudal portion of hard palate
Nasal Bones
Dorsal bones of face-form roof of nasal cavity
Ethmoid Bones
Are internal bones, they start at the most rostral portion of the cranial cavity and extend forward into the nasal passages
Cribriform Plate
Has openings called ethmoid foramina, part of the ethmoid bones
Ethmoid Foramina
Openings that let the olfactory nerve leave the brain and enter the nasal passages
Cranial Nerve I
The olfactory nerve
Ethmoid Turninates
Curled sheets of bone sometimes called scrolls, which are covered in mucous membrane
Nasal Septum
Divides the nasal cavity in half
Articulation
Another name for joint
Fibrous Joint
No joint cavity, bones are held together by fibrous tissue, found between splints and cannon bone. Found between skull bones (sutures) teeth in sockets
Cartilaginous Joints
Have no joint cavity, Bones held together by cartilage. Examples are growth plates, disks between vertebrae and the pelvic symphysis
Synovial Joints
The classic joints, (stifle joint, elbow joint, fetlock joint).
Articular Surface
The end of the bone that is articulating with another bone joint, surfaces of bone are covered with cartilage which makes them shiny and smooth
Articular Cavity
Space between bones
Joint Capsule
Surrounds the joint cavity, has 2 layers
Synovial Fluid
Lubricates, nourishes, and keeps the joint moveable
Meniscus
Inside the joint. Cartilage plates which help make the ends of the bones fit together better, can get torn
Drawer Sign
Bend leg slightly, move femur and tibia in opposite directions to see if there is looseness, Tested if suspected torn cruciate ligament, + means that there is a problem and animal needs surgery
DJD or Arthritis
Damage to joint can lead to this
Exogenous Infection
Created by a puncture into the joint
Endogenous Infection
Caused by a navel infection, occurs in young animals
Patellar Ligaments
Really a tendon, Important to keep patella riding in the patellar groove
Stay Apparatus
In horses, allows for them to sleep standing up, locks leg in place, due to three patellar ligaments
Luxation
Dislocation- femur pops out of acetabulum
Subluxation
Partial dislocation- vertebrae
Arthritis
Inflammation or infection of the joint
Sprain
Stretching of ligaments around joint
Osteochondrosis dessicans
OCD- degeneration of articular cartilage in joint-flaps
Degenerative Joint Disease
DJD- another name for arthritis, secondary to structural deformities that cause abnormal articulation of bones
Skeletal
Multinucleated, striated, voluntary muscle that enables conscious movement of an animal, moves the bones of the skeleton
Smooth
Non-striated involuntary muscle w/only one nucleus- found on internal organs
Cardiac
Striated, involuntary muscle found exclusively on the heart
Muscle Fibers
Actin and Myosin
Myofibrils
Micorsopic, fiber-like structures that occupy most cytoplasm in skeletal muscle cells
Sacromere
Basic contracting unit of muscle cell consits of actin and myosin filaments between z-lines in a muscle cell
Actin
Protein that composes microfilaments. Found in cytoskeleton myofibrils of muscle fiber, spindle fibers during cell division
Myosin
A protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiber
Tendon
Fibrous connective tissue bands that connect skeletal muscles to bones
Origin
Proximal. The more stable of the attachment sites of the muscle
Insertion
Distal. The more movable of the attachment sites of the muscle
Bursa
Sac filled w/synovial fluid (between the tendon and bone) over use leads to bursitis
Tendon Sheath
Elongated bursa. Surrounds a tendon, Found along long tendons in bone
Hypertrophy
Increase in size of muscles
Atrophy
Muscle shrinkage, decrease in size of muscles
Peristalsis
A rythmic, wavelike motion that progressively moves through a tube organ such as the small intestine
Intercalated Discs
Attachment sites between the transverse lines between cardiac muscle cells
Flexor
Bend the joint th way it wants to bend
Extensor
Straighten out the joint
Adductor
Move the limb towards the body
Abductor
Moves the limb away from the body
Sphincter
Circular muscles around an opening
Pectoral
Chest muscles-adduct the thoracic limbs
Biceps
Flexes the elbow and extends the shoulder
Triceps
Extends elbow, ORIGIN: scapula/humerus INSERTION: Olecranon of ulna
Linea Alba
The sheet of fibrous connective tissue that connects the abdominal muscles from each side on the ventral midline
Semimembranosus
Medial portion of the hamstring
Semitendinosus
Lateral portion of the hamstring
Quadriceps Femoris
Cranial thigh muscles, extend stifle
Gluteals
"Rump muscles" extend hip, and abduct limb ORIGIN: Ilium INSERTION: Greater Trochanter of the femur
Gastrocnemius
Calf Muscle, flexes stifle and extends hock, achilles tendon ORIGIN: Femur INSERION: Calcaneus-by achilles tendon
Hypertrophy
Increase in size of cells
Hyperplasia
Increase in number of cells
Osseous
Bone Tissue
Osteocytes
Bone cells
Ossification
Process by which bone forms in body
Long Bones
Humerous, Radius, Ulna, Femur, Fibula and Tibia
Long Bones - Characteristic
Very Strong, Broad at ends where they join other bones, large surface area for muscle attachment
Diaphysis
Shaft or middle region of long bone that contains layer of spongy bone
Epiphyseal Line
No more growth
Epiphyseal Plate
Area of long bone where growth occurs
Medullary Cavity
Hollow Center / Children - red bone marrow / adult - yellow bone marrow (fat)
Haversian Canals
Channels in bone which contain the bone's blood vessels
Short Bones
Carpal, Tarsal
Short Bone Characteristic
Can withstand alot of pressure
Flat Bones
Cranial, sternum, ribs and scapula
Flat Bone Characteristic
Gives a lot of protection
Irregular Bones
Vertebrae, Malleus, incus, stapes
Irregular Bone Characteristics
Protective
Foramen Magnum
A large hole in the occipital bone for the passage of nerves into the spinal cord
Shoulder
Joint with greatest range of motion
Flexion
Bending or Decreasing the angle between bones
Extension
Increasing the angle between bones
Abduction
Moving bones or limb away from the midline
Adduction
Moving bones or limb toward the midline
Circumduction
moving bone or limb in a circle
Supination
moving bones so radius and ulna are parallel
Pronation
Moving bones so radius and ulna are NOT parallel
Rotation
Moving the bone around in a central axis
Cervical Vertebrae - 1st
Atlas - allows for the rotation movement of the head
Cervical Vertebrae - 2nd
Axes - allows for the rotation movement of the head
Kyphosis
exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (hunchback)
Lordosis
Exaggerated anterior curvature of the lumbar or cervical spine (hollowback)
Scoliosis
Abnormal lateral curvature of thoracic spine
Exostosis
Benign bone tumor
Ewings
Malignant bone tumor
Sprain
Tearing or overstretching of a ligament. Ligaments attach bone to bone.
Strains
Tearing or overstretching of a muscle. Tendons attach muscles to bone.
Talipes
Clubfoot - congenital anomalies
Compound Fracture
Open - bone pierces the skin
Simple Fracture
Closed - Fracture does not pierce through the skin
Greenstick Fracture
partial fracture - will bend on one side and break on the other
Comminuted Fracture
fracture lines are multiple and the bone is splintered and crushed
Impacted Fracture
one end of a bone is wedged into the adjoining bone
Open Reductions
manipulating ends of fractures under direct vision using an incision
Closed Reductions
manual manipulation of the ends of the fractured bone so that normal alignment is maintained
Origin
end is attached to the relatively less movable bone (proximal)
Insertion
attachment to a bone which moves in the ordinary active in the body (distal)
Muscles
ends in tendons
Frontalis
forehead muscle (Raises eyebrow andfacial expressions)
Sternocleidomastoid
Strong bandlike muscle involved in "wry neck" known as torticollis (flexes and rotates the head)
Deltoid
Common site for injections - Shoulder
Gastrocnemius
Enables one to stand on tip toes & is enlarged in dancers (calf of leg)
Vertebrae
Becomes progressively larger down to the sacrum and then become successively smaller.
Typical vertebra
is anterior
Vertebral arch
is posterior
Deltoid Muscle, Origin
ant fibers- anterior lateral third of the clavicle, Mid fibers- lateral aspect of the acromion, Post. fibers- inferior edge of the spine of the scapula.
Deltoid Muscle, Insertion
Deltoid tuberosity on the lateral humerus.
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Anterior fibers)
abduction, flexion, horizontal adduction, and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Middle fibers)
abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Posterior fibers)
abduction, extension, horizontal abduction, and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
Deltoid Muscle, Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Pectoralis Major - Origin
Upper fibers (clavicular head)- medial half of the anterior surface of the clavicle. Lower fibers (Sternal head)- anterior surface of the costal cartilage of the first six ribs, and adjacent portion of the sternum.
Pectoralis Major - Insertion
Flat tendon 2 or 3 inches wide to the lateral lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus.
Pectoralis Major - Action (Upper fibers, clavicular head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, flexion up to about 60 degrees, abduction (once the arm is abducted 90 degrees, the upper fibers assist in further abduction), and the adduction (with the arm below 90 degrees of abduction) of the glenohumeral joint.
Pectoralis Major - Action (Lower fibers, sternal head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, adduction and extension of the glenohumeral joint from a flexed position to the anatomical position.
Pectoralis Major - Innervation
Upper fibers- lateral pectoral nerve (C5-C7). Lower fibers- medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1)
Latissimus dorsi - Origin
Posterior crest of the ilium, back of the sacrum and spinous processes of the lumbar and lower six thoracic vertebrae (T6-T12); slips from the lower three ribs
Latissimus dorsi - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus, just anterior to the insertion of the teres major.
Latissimus dorsi - Action
adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
Latissimus dorsi - Innervation
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)
Coracobrachialis - Origin
Coracoid process of the scapula
Coracobrachialis - Insertion
Middle of the medial border of the humeral shaft
Coracobrachialis - Action
Flexion of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal adduction of the glenohumeral joint
Coracobrachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7)
Subscapularis - Origin
Entire anterior surface of the subscapular fossa
Subscapularis - Insertion
Lesser tubercle of the humerus
Subscapularis - Action
Internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Subscapularis - Innervation
Upper and lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Supraspinatus - Origin
Medial two-thirds of the supraspinatus fossa
Supraspinatus - Insertion
Superiorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Supraspinatus - Action
Abduction, Stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Supraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5)
Infraspinatus - Origin
Medial aspect of the infraspinatus fossa just below the spine of the scapula
Infraspinatus - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Infraspinatus - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Infraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
Teres minor - Origin
Posteriorly on the upper and middle aspect of the lateral border of the scapula
Teres minor - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Teres minor - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumoral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Teres minor - Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Teres major - Origin
Posteriorly on the inferior third of the lateral border of the scapula and just superior to the inferior angle
Teres major - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus just posterior to the insertion of the latissimus dorsi
Teres major - Action
Extension of the glenohumoral joint, particularly from the flexed position to the posteriorly extended position, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, particularly from the abducted position down to the side and toward the midline of the body
Teres major - Innervation
Lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Biceps brachii - Origin
Long head- supraglenoid tubercle above the superior lip of the glenoid fossa, Short head- coracoid process of the scapula and upper lip of the glenoid fossa in conjunction with the proximal attachment of the coracobrachialis
Biceps brachii - Insertion
Tuberosity of the radius and bicipital aponeurosis
Biceps brachii - Action
Flexian of the elbow, supination of the forearm, weak flexion of the shoulder joint, weak abduction of the shoulder joint when the shoulder joint is in external rotation
Biceps brachii - Innervation
musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)
Brachialis - Origin
Distal half of the anterior shaft of the humerus
Brachialis - Insertion
Coronoid process of the ulna
Brachialis - Action
True flexion of the elbow
Brachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve and sometimes branches from radial and median nerves (C5, C6)
Triceps brachii - Origin
Long head- infraglenoid tubercle below inferior lip of glenoid fossa of the scapula, Lateral head- upper half of the posterior surface of the humerus, Medial head- distal two-thirds of the posterior surface of the humerus
Triceps brachii - Insertion
Olecranon process of the ulna
Triceps brachii - Action
All heads- extension of the elbow, Long head- extension, adduction, and horizontal abduction of the shoulder joint
Triceps brachii - Innervation
Radial nerve (C7, C8)
Anconeus - Origin
Posterior surface of the lateral condyle of the humerus
Anconeus - Insertion
Posterior surface of the lateral olecranon process and proximal one-fourth of the ulna
Anconeus - Action
Extension of the elbow
Anconeus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C7, C8)
Pronator teres - Origin
Distal part of the medial condyloid ridge of the humerus and medial side of the proximal ulna
Pronator teres - Insertion
Middle third of the lateral surface of the radius
Pronator teres - Action
Pronation of the forearm, weak flexion of the elbow
Pronator teres - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Pronator quadratus - Origin
Distal fourth of the anterior side of the ulna
Pronator quadratus - Insertion
Distal fourth of the anterior side of the radius
Pronator quadratus - Action
Pronation of the forearm
Pronator quadratus - Innervation
Median nerve (palmar interosseous branch) (C6, C7)
Supinator - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus and neighboring posterior part of the ulna
Supinator - Insertion
Lateral surface of the proximal radius just below the head
Supinator - Action
Supination of the forearm
Supinator - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6)
Flexor carpi radialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Flexor carpi radialis - Insertion
Base of the second and third metacarpals, anterior (palmar surface)
Flexor carpi radialis - Action
Flexion of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow, weak pronation of the forearm
Flexor carpi radialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Flexor carpi radialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Flexor carpi radialis - Insertion
Base of the second and third metacarpals, anterior (palmar surface)
Flexor carpi radialis - Action
Flexion of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow, weak pronation of the forearm
Flexor carpi radialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Palmaris longus - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Palmaris longus - Insertion
Palmer aponeurosis of the second, third, fourth, and fifth metacarpals
Palmaris longus - Action
Flexion of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow
Palmaris longus - Innervation
Median nerve (C6, C7)
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus, Posterior aspect of the proximal ulna
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Insertion
Pisiform, hamate, and base of the fifth metacarpal (palmer surface)
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Action
Flexion of the wrist, adduction of the wrist, together with the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, weak flexion of the elbow
Flexor carpi ulnaris - Innervation
Ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus, Middle two-fourths of the posterior border of the ulna
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Insertion
Base of the fifth metacarpal (dorsal surface)
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Action
Extension of the wrist, adduction of the wrist together with the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, weak extension of the elbow
Extensor carpi ulnaris - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Insertion
Base of the third metacarpal (dorsal surface)
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Action
Extension of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow
Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Origin
Lower third of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus and lateral epicondyle of the humeral
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Insertion
Base of the second metacarpal (dorsal surface)
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Action
Extension of the wrist, abduction of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow, weak pronation to neutral from a fully supinated position
Extensor carpi radialis longus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Origin
Medial epicondyle of the humerus, Ulnar head- medial coronoid process, Radial head- upper two-thirds of anterior border of radius just distal to the radial tuberosity
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Insertion
Each tendon splits and attaches to the sides of the middle phalanx of four fingers (palmer surface)
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Action
Flexion of the fingers at the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints, flexion of the wrist, weak flexion of the elbow
Flexor digitorum superficialis - Innervation
Median nerve (C7, C8, and T1)
Flexor digitorum profundus - Origin
Proximal three-fourths of the anterior and medial ulna
Flexor digitorum profundus - Insertion
Base of the distal phalanxes of the four fingers
Flexor digitorum profundus - Action
Flexion of the four fingers at the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints, flexion of the wrist
Flexor digitorum profundus - Innervation
Median nerve (C8, T1) to the second and third fingers, Ulnar nerve (C8, T1) to the fourth and fifth fingers
Flexor pollicis longus - Origin
Middle anterior surface of the radius and the anterior medial border of the ulna just distal to the coronoid process; occasionally a small head is present attaching on the medial epicondyle of the humerus
Flexor pollicis longus - Insertion
Base of the distal phalanx of the thumb (palmer surface)
Flexor pollicis longus - Action
Flexion of the thumb carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal, and interphalangeal joints, Flexion of the wrist, Abduction of the wrist
Flexor pollicis longus - Innervation
Median nerve, palmar interosseous branch (C8, T1)
Extensor digitorum - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Extensor digitorum - Insertion
Four tendons to bases of middle and distal phalanxes of four fingers (dorsal surface)
Extensor digitorum - Action
Extension of the second, third, fourth, and fifth phalanges at the metacarpophalangeal joints, Extension of the wrist, weak extension of the elbow
Extensor digitorum - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
Extensor digiti minimi - Origin
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Extensor digiti minimi - Insertion
Base of the middle and distal phalanxes of the fifth phalange (dorsal surface)
Extensor digiti minimi - Action
Extension of the little finger at the metacarpophalangeal joint, Weak wrist extension, Weak elbow extension
Extensor digiti minimi - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
Extensor pollicis longus - Origin
Posterior lateral surface of the lower middle ulna
Extensor pollicis longus - Insertion
Base of the distal phalanx of the thumb (dorsal surface)
Extensor pollicis longus - Action
Extension of the thumb at the carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal, and interphalangeal joints, Extension of the wrist, Abduction of the wrist, Weak supination of the forearm from a pronated position
Extensor pollicis longus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6-C8)
Extensor pollicis brevis - Origin
Posterior surface of the lower middle radius
Extensor pollicis brevis - Insertion
Base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb (dorsal surface)
Extensor pollicis brevis - Action
Extension of the thumb at the carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joint, Weak wrist extension, Wrist abduction
Extensor pollicis brevis - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Abductor pollicis longus - Origin
Posterior aspect of the radius and midshaft of the ulna
Abductor pollicis longus - Insertion
Base of the first metacarpal (dorsal lateral surface)
Abductor pollicis longus - Action
Abduction of the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint, Abduction of the wrist, Extension of the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint, Weak supination of the forearm from a pronated position, Weak flexion of the wrist joint
Abductor pollicis longus - Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7)
Coracobrachialis
Origin: coracoid process of the scapula; Insertion: medial shaft of the humerus at about its middle; Action: flexes the humerus,assists to adduct the humerus; Blood: muscular branches of the brachial artery;Nerve: musculocutaneous nerve, C5,6,(C7)
brachioradialis
Origin: long head- supraglenoid tubercle and glenohumeral labrum & short head- tip of the coracoid process of the scapula Insertion: radial tuberosity &bicipital aponeurosis Action: flexes the forearm at the elbow (when supinated) & supinates forearm from neutral & stabilizes anterior aspect of shoulder & flexes shoulder (weak if at all) Blood: muscular branches of brachial artery Nerve: musculocutaneous nerve, C5,6
three types of muscles
skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, caridac muscle
voluntary muscles-d
a person consciously shooses which muscles to contract and how long and how hard to contract them
involuntary muscles-d
under the control of the subconscious regions of the brain
involuntary muscles-ex
smooth muscles found in the internal organs and cardiac muscles
voluntary muscles-ex
skeletal muscles of the arm and leg
muscles
bundles of parallel muscle tissue fibers
striated muscle
another name for skeletal muscle
fascia
fibrous connective tissue that wrap around each muscle
tendon
the strong connective tissue cords that attach skeletal muscles to bones
motor neurons
of the nervous system and stimulates skeletal muscles
myoneural junction
point of which the motor nerve contacts a muscle fiber
visceral muscle
the muscle found in the walls of internal organs such as the stomach
myocardium
cardiac muscle
rectus abdominis
straight (rectus) abdominal muscle
sternocleidomastoid
stern/o (sternum), cleid/o (clavicle), single insertion (mastoid process)
gluteous maximus
rump area, large
flexor carpi
flexion at the wrist
extensor carpi
extension at the wrist
biceps
two, muscle in the upper arm that has two heads or connecting points
origin
less moveable of the two bones is considered to be the starting point of the muscle
insertion
more moveable bone is considered to be where the muscle ends
action
type of movement a muscle produces
antagonistic pairs
muscles are often arranged around joints, they produce opposite actions
Tensor Fascia Latae
Ilium, Iliotibial tract, Flexes, abducts, and medially rotates thigh
Rectus Abdominis
Pubic bone, Ribs 5-7 and xiphoid process, flexion at waist
Transverse Abdominis
Ilium, Linea alba and pubic crest, compresses abdominal wall
Internal Oblique
Lmbodorsal fascia, Lower 4 ribs, Flexion and rotation at waist
External Oblique
Lower 8 ribs, Ilium and linea alba, flexion and rotation at waist
Sternomastoideus
Manubrium, clavicle, mastoid process, singly, rotates head to opposite shoulder, together, flexes head
Sternohyoideus
Manubrium, clavicle, hyoid bone, depresses hyoid and larynx
Gluteus Medius
Ilium, femur, Abduction and medial rotation of thigh
Gluteus Maximus
Ilium, sacrum, coccyx, femur, extension, and lateral rotation of thigh
Sartorius
Ilium, tibia, flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh, flexes lower leg
Gracilis
Pubis, tibia, adducts thigh, flexes and medially rotates leg
Adductor Femoris
Ischium and pubis, femur, adducts, flexes and laterally rotates thigh
Semitendinosus
Ischium, tibia, extends thigh, flexes lower leg
Semimembranosus
Ischium, tibia, extends thigh, flexes lower leg
Vastus Lateralis
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg, stabilizes knee
Vastus Medialis
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg
Vastus Intermedius
Femur, patella, tibia, extends lower leg
Rectus Femoris
Ilium, patella, tibia, extends knee, flexes thigh
Gastrocnemius
Femur, via achilles tendon onto calcaneal tendon, flexes lower leg, plantarflexes foot
Tibialis Anterior
Tibia, first cuneiform and first metatarsals, dorsiflexes and inverts foot
Soleus
Fibula, tibia, calcaneal tendon onto calcaneus, plantarflexes foot
Fibularis Longus
Fibula, first metatarsal, plantar flexion
Biceps Femoris
Ischium and femur, tibia, fibula, extends thigh and flexes lower leg
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Tibia, Phalanges of toes 2-5, extend toes 2-5 and dorsiflexes ankle
Deltoid Muscle, Origin
ant fibers- anterior lateral third of the clavicle, Mid fibers- lateral aspect of the acromion, Post. fibers- inferior edge of the spine of the scapula.
Deltoid Muscle, Insertion
Deltoid tuberosity on the lateral humerus.
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Anterior fibers)
abduction, flexion, horizontal adduction, and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Middle fibers)
abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
Deltoid Muscle, Action (Posterior fibers)
abduction, extension, horizontal abduction, and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
Deltoid Muscle, Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Pectoralis Major - Origin
Upper fibers (clavicular head)- medial half of the anterior surface of the clavicle. Lower fibers (Sternal head)- anterior surface of the costal cartilage of the first six ribs, and adjacent portion of the sternum.
Pectoralis Major - Insertion
Flat tendon 2 or 3 inches wide to the lateral lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus.
Pectoralis Major - Action (Upper fibers, clavicular head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, flexion up to about 60 degrees, abduction (once the arm is abducted 90 degrees, the upper fibers assist in further abduction), and the adduction (with the arm below 90 degrees of abduction) of the glenohumeral joint.
Pectoralis Major - Action (Lower fibers, sternal head)
internal rotation, horizontal adduction, adduction and extension of the glenohumeral joint from a flexed position to the anatomical position.
Pectoralis Major - Innervation
Upper fibers- lateral pectoral nerve (C5-C7). Lower fibers- medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1)
Latissimus dorsi - Origin
Posterior crest of the ilium, back of the sacrum and spinous processes of the lumbar and lower six thoracic vertebrae (T6-T12); slips from the lower three ribs
Latissimus dorsi - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus, just anterior to the insertion of the teres major.
Latissimus dorsi - Action
adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint.
Latissimus dorsi - Innervation
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)
Coracobrachialis - Origin
Coracoid process of the scapula
Coracobrachialis - Insertion
Middle of the medial border of the humeral shaft
Coracobrachialis - Action
Flexion of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal adduction of the glenohumeral joint
Coracobrachialis - Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7)
Subscapularis - Origin
Entire anterior surface of the subscapular fossa
Subscapularis - Insertion
Lesser tubercle of the humerus
Subscapularis - Action
Internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Subscapularis - Innervation
Upper and lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
Supraspinatus - Origin
Medial two-thirds of the supraspinatus fossa
Supraspinatus - Insertion
Superiorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Supraspinatus - Action
Abduction, Stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Supraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5)
Infraspinatus - Origin
Medial aspect of the infraspinatus fossa just below the spine of the scapula
Infraspinatus - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Infraspinatus - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumeral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Infraspinatus - Innervation
Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
Teres minor - Origin
Posteriorly on the upper and middle aspect of the lateral border of the scapula
Teres minor - Insertion
Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
Teres minor - Action
External rotation of the glenohumeral joint, horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint, extension of the glenohumoral joint, stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa
Teres minor - Innervation
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Teres major - Origin
Posteriorly on the inferior third of the lateral border of the scapula and just superior to the inferior angle
Teres major - Insertion
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus just posterior to the insertion of the latissimus dorsi
Teres major - Action
Extension of the glenohumoral joint, particularly from the flexed position to the posteriorly extended position, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint, adduction of the glenohumeral joint, particularly from the abducted position down to the side and toward the midline of the body
Teres major - Innervation
Lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)