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origin is supraspinatus fossa of scapula and insertion is greater tubercle of humerus. helps prevent downward dislocation of humerus


flexes humerus, antagonist of supraspinatus

triceps brachii

extends arm at elbow

biceps brachii

powerful flexor of forearm; origin is glenoid process and coracoid process of scapula, insertion is radial tuberosity


flexes elbow

palmaris longus

flexes wrist

extensor carpi radialis

abducts wrist and flexes hand at wrist, origin is medial epicondyle of humerus, insertion is base of 2 and 3 metacarpals


rotates forearm laterally


abducts and laterally rotates femur, origin is iliac crest, insertion is proximal tibia/patella


adducts femur/thigh

rectus femoris

part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee

vastus lateralis

part of quadriceps group, extends leg at knee

gluteus maximus

heaviest muscle in body, extends/straightens leg at hip during walking

biceps femoris

part of hamstrings group, flexes knee and extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally


part of hamstrings group


part of hamstrings group


plantar flexes foot, flexes leg at knee when foot is dorsiflexed

tibialis anterior

dorsiflexion and inversion of foot


plantar flexes the foot, origin is lateral surface of head of fibula, insertion is calcaneus

longissimus capitus

helps maintain posture, extends head and rotates face/head to same side


protrusion of fat or intestine from abdominal wall

abdominal aponeuroses

tendons of various abdominal muscles that interlace at midline


wiggle ears

orbicularis oculi

blink eye, smile

zygomaticus major

smiling muscle, raises corners of mouth upwards

orbicularis oris

spincter muscle used for "puckering up" and whistling


protrudes lower lip and wrinkles chin, sad


compresses cheek, allowing for rapid changes in volume of mouth cavity


sheet-like muscle in neck that pulls mouth (jaw) downward


changes size of nasal openings


opens jaw


rotates face to opposite side, laterally flexes head to same side, origin is manubrium of sternum, insertion is mastoid process of temporal bone

rectus abdominus

major spine flexor, forms 6 pack and translates to "straight muscle of abdomen"

external oblique

origin is lower 8 ribs, compresses abdomen; most external of abdominal muscles

internal oblique

compresses abdomen, middle layer; fibers point up to the head

transverse abdominus

compresses abdomen, deepest layer of ab muscles

linea alba

midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet

serratus anterior

pulls scapula downward and forward


origins are occipital bone and spines of cervical/thoracic vertebrae. insertions are clavicle and spine/acromion process of scapula. elevates scapula, carries tension

rhomboid major

adducts scapula

pectoralis major

prime mover for shoulder flexion and adduction

latissimus dorsi

adducts and extends upper arm/shoulder, rotates humerus medially


prime mover for upper arm/shoulder abductor, flexes/extends humerus

Surface area of integumentary system

15-20 square feet

1 square inch of the integumentary system contains

>3 million cells, 15 ft of blood vessels, 4 yards nerves, 650 sweat glands, 100 oil glands, 1500 sensory receptors


It is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. Types of cells that are found in the hypodermis are Fibroblasts, Adipose Cells, and Macrophages

Epidermis and dermis

Epidermis is superficial epithelium, dermis is underlying area of connective tissues

Functions of integumentary system

Thermoregulation, protection (physical and immune), sensory (in dermis and hypodermis), excretion (sensible and insensible), storage (nutrients, esp. adipose), blood reservoir (10% of vessels), synthesis (vitamin d3 and melanin), absorption (gases, UV light, water, vitamins)

Layers of the epidermis

Bottom to top: Stratum Basale, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Corneum

Characteristics of Epidermis

Stratified squamous epithelium, outermost layers dead, most have 4 layers but soles of feet and palms of hands have 5, avascular (no blood vessels)

Stratum basale (stratum germinativum)

In contact with dermis, stem cells; mitosis, replace more superficial cells. Keratinocytes and melanocytes (produce keratine and menanin)

Stratum spinosum

8-10 layers, keratin causes spiny appearance, little mitosis

Stratum granulosum

Granular, 3-5 layers, flattened; accumulating proteins especially carotene

Stratum lucidum

only in soles or palms, 3-5 layers, clear with no nuclei, flat and dead

Stratum corneum

Most superficial, "horn-like" cornified or keratinized, 15-30 layers flat and dead, 15-30 days from stratum basale then 10-14 days until lost, tightly connected

3 pigments of skin

melanin, carotene, hemoglobin (not resident)


only melanin is made in the skin. Melanin can be gradated into many different shades. It is this ability of Melanin that gives different races different skin coloration. A special type of cells known as melanocytes produces melanin, Melanocytes are primarily found in the stratum germinativum. Whenever the skin has had an exposure to sunlight, the stratum germinativum cells, phagocytize or eat the skin pigment melanin. After an amount of time, melanin accumulates within the stratum germinativum cells, and tends to form a protective pigment "umbrella". These "umbrellas of melanin pigment shields DNA from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation


has a yellow-orange color and is primarily found in the palms and the soles


gives fair-skinned people a pink hue to their skin due to the lack of melanin in the epidermis, which makes it almost transparent


blue, the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface


melanocytes can't sythesize melanin

Leukoplakia or vitiligo

condition of the mouth that involves the formation of white leathery spots on the mucous membranes of the tongue and inside of the mouth, vitiligo is similar but not in the mouth. possibly auto-immune

Properties of Dermis

vascularized (temperature, blood pressure, nutrients, metabolic waste), glands, follicles and receptors

Papillary layer

Top 1/5 of dermis, most is areolar connective tissue, dermal papillae "fingerprints"

Reticular layer

Collagen, elastin, strong and stretchable. If stretched too far, it tears causing striae or linea albicans (stretch marks). It's innervated, has effectors (muscles, glands) and receptors


Subcutaneous layer, attaches dermis to underlying tissue, adipose, areolar connective tissues (energy reserve and padding), vascular

Accessory structures of integumentary system

Hair (pili), glands, and nails


for protection from cold, sun, particles, produced by hair bulb and enclosed in hair follicle

Glands in integumentary system

In the dermis, all are exocrine. Sebaceous (oil) glands secrete sebum that softens and lubricates skin and hair. Sudoriferous (sweat glands) control temperature, excretes some waste materials (eccrine glands are all over, apocrine glands (in axillary, pubic and nipple regions), mammary glands, ceruminous glands (produce cerumen or earwax)


protect digits, plates of keratinezed epidermal cells


Scrape or surface damage, stratum basale cells migrate, mitosis

Deep wound healing (injury beyond stratum basale)

Inflammatory phase (blood clot forms), migratory phase (cells migrate), proliferative phase (continues), maturation phase (scab falls off)


Negative feedback, thermoreceptors to brain, temperature control center sends message to effectors

Cold thermoregulation

Shiver (ATP produces heat): shivering thermogenesis. Blood moves deeper. Arrector pili raised (goose bumps) smooth muscle

Hot thermoregulation

Perspire, evaporation cools skin, vessels dilate, blood nears surface of skin


First degree (surface), second degree (epidermis, maybe upper part of dermis), third degree (subcutaneous, if extensive may need grafting)

Partial Thickness and full thickness

1st and 2nd degree burns are "partial thickness", 3rd are full thickness

Rule of nines, lund and browder chart

Determine percentage of body burned in an injury

Aging of integumentary system

Thinner and more prone to damage, fewer immune cells, less vitamin D produced, decrease in melanocyte activity (gray hair), less secretion, skin dries easily, sweat glands less active, fewer capillaries to lose heat, dermis loses elasticity and strength (wrinkles)

Neoplasms (tumors)

Benign or malignant

Basal cell carcinoma

Most common skin cancer, rarely fatal, but can be disfiguring

Squamous cell carcinoma

carcinoma type that may occur in many different organs, including the skin, mouth, esophagus, prostate, lungs, and cervix. It is a malignant tumor of epithelium that shows squamous cell differentiation.

Malignant melanoma

worst kind, most rare but deadliest

Kaposi's sarcoma

bruise like cancer


Blocked sebaceous glands

Athelete's foot (tinea pedis)

fungus of foot



Decubitis (pressure) ulcer



skin inflammation


Reddening of skin


formation of scar tissue


infection caused by staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria


Liver can't excrete bile, get rid of bilirubin, skin and whites of eyes are yellow


Wounded or damaged area


Chronic, noninfectious, raised, reddened round plaques covered by silvery white scales




chickenpox virus

Urticaria or hives

itching from allergy, stress or drug reactions









pectoralis major


rectus abdominis



upper back


back of arm

latissimus dorsi


gluteus maximus



back of thigh




Origin: Femoral condyles


Insertion: Calcaneous via calcaneal tendon


Action: Flexes knee; plantar flexes, inverts, and adducts foot


Innervation: Tibial Nerve


Origin: lateral supracondylar ridge of femur


Insertion: posterior portion of calcaneous


Action: flexes knee; plantar flexes foot


Innervation: Tibial Nerve


Origin: head and proximal fibula, posteromedial tibia


Insertion: calcaneous via calcanal tendon


Action: Planter flexes, inverts, and adducts foot


Innervation: Sciatic Nerve, tibial branch

Tibialis posterior

Origin: proximal tibia and fibula, interosseous membrane

Tibialis posterior

Insertion: Tarsals and metatarsal 2-4

Tibialis posterior

Action: Plantar flexes, inverts, and adducts food

tibialis posterior

Innervation: Sciatic nerve, tibial branch

Peroneus brevis

Origin: midlateral margin of fibula

Peroneus brevis

Insertion: base of metatarsal 5

Peroneus brevis

Action: Everts and plantar flexes foot

Peroneus brevis

Innveration: superficial peroneal nerve


o: cranial aponeurosis; i: skin of eyebrows; raises brows

orbicularis oculi

o: frontal bone; i: tissue around eyes; blinks and closes eyes

orbicularis oris

o: mandible and maxilla; i: skin and muscle around mouth; closes and protrudes lips


o: maxilla and mandible; i: orbicularis oris; holds food in mouth, sucks in cheeks


o: zygomatic bone; i: skin and muscle at corner of lips; raises corners of mouth


o: temporal bone; i: mandible; closes jaw


o: temporal bone; i: mandible; closes jaw


o: occiptal bone; i: scalp; pulls scalp posteriorly


o: connective tissue covering chest muscles; i: tissue around mouth; pulls corner of mouth down


o: sternum, clavicle; i: temporal bone; flexes neck, rotates head

pectoralis major

o:sternum, clavicle, 1-6 ribs ; i: proximal humerous ; adducts and flexes humerus

intercostals muscles

o: bottom half of ribs ; i: top half of ribs ; raise and depress ribcage for breathing

rectus abdominis

o: pubis; i: sternum ; flexes vertebral column

internal oblique

o: illiac crest; i: last 3 ribs; flexes and rotates vertebral column

external oblique

o: lower 8 ribs; i: illiac crest; flexes and rotates vertebral column


o: occipital bone and all cervical and thoracic vertebrae; i: scalpular spine and clavicle; extends neck and adducts

latissimus dorsi

o: lower spine and illiac crest; i: proximal humerus; extends and adducts humerus

erector spinea

o: illiac crests, ribs 3-12, vertebrae; i: rubs thoracic and cervical vertebrae; extends back

iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis

o: cranium; i: sacrum; back extensors and control bending actions @ waist

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