Authoritarian Quiz (Monday) Quizlet Live (Wednesday)
This set of flashcards will help you prepare for the November midterm exam.
Terms in this set (46)
States include _________: stable, long lasting organizations that help to turn political ideas into policy.
Common examples of _______ are bureaucracies, legislatures, judicial systems, and political parties. These __________ make states themselves long lasting, and often help them to endure even when leaders change.
In today's world, power is territorially organized into _____, or countries, that control what happens within their borders.
German scholar Max Weber defined _____ as the organization that maintains a monopoly of violence over a territory.
States exercise ________, the ability to carry out actions or policies within their borders independently from interference either from the inside or the outside.
A state that is unable to exercise _____ lacks autonomy, and because it is not independent, it may be exploited by leaders and/or organizations that see the state as a resource to use for their own ends. Frequently, the result is a high level of corruption.
States in which legitimate authority has crumbled, bureaucracies are starved of resources, government programs are poorly coordinated, police fail to uphold the law and instead act in a predatory manner towards the population, armed paramilitaries proliferate, because the state's monopoly on the means of violence had been broken
The rules that a state sets and follows in exerting its power are referred to collectively as a _____. Regimes endure beyond individual governments and leaders. We refer to a regime when a country's institutions and practices carry over across time, even though leaders and particular issues change. _____ may be compared by using these categories: democracies and authoritarian systems
This type of regime bases its authority on the will of the people. ______ governments typically have three major branches: executives, legislatures, and judicial courts. _______ governments vary in the degree to which they regulate/control the economy, but businesses, corporations, and/or companies generally operate somewhat independently from the government.
In this type of regime, decisions are made by political elites - those who hold political power - without much input from citizens. These regimes may be ruled by a single dictator, an hereditary monarch, a small group of religious clerics, or a single political party. The economy is generally tightly controlled by the political elite.
Common characteristics of authoritarian regimes
• A small group of elites exercising power over the state
• Citizens with little or no input into selection of leaders and government decisions
• No constitutional responsibility of leaders to the public
• Restriction of civil rights and civil liberties
_______ refers to the collection of political beliefs, values, practices, and institutions that the government is based on.
For example, if a society values individualism, the government will generally reflect this value in the way that it is structured and in the way that it operates. If the government does not reflect basic political values of a people, it will have difficulty remaining viable.
the right to rule, as determined by the State's own citizens.
Many factors contribute to ______ in the modem state. In a democracy, the _____ of leaders is based on fair, competitive elections and open political participation by citizens.
sources of legitimacy
1. Charisma of a leader
2. Belief systems, ideologies, and founding myths
3. Tradition (including monarchy and birthright)
7. Rule of law and/or rational legal authority
8. Competitive elections
9. Distinct aspects of a country's political culture
The super wealthy _________ of Russia emerged in the chaos of shock therapy privatization of the early 1990s, using insider ties, corruption, and other illicit business practices to gain control of the most valuable formerly state-owned industries of the former Soviet Union.
Under Putin, _________ could keep their
wealth as long as they remained out of Russian politics.
_________ regimes are distinguished by the way they invest political authority into a small group of individuals who exercise this authority without any constitutional responsibility to the public.
Those regimes that have the institutional process of elections to determine the winners, but lack pluralism, civil liberties, and other fundamental features of liberal democracy.
________________ are not really democracies, in the end, since those in power are essentially able to use the state to protect their place in power, meaning the fundamental feature of democracy, the power of voters to hold a government accountable and remove it by ballot, doesn't really seem to exist.
Chinese Communist Party
Central Military Commission
__________ - although the chairman of the _________n of the PRC (the government) is technically commander-in-chief of the Chinese military, the ________ of the CCP really controls military policy in the PRC.
The ______ is composed of 450 deputies
They are given power by the Russian Constitution to pass bills into law with the president's signature, approve the budget, and confirm or reject the appointment of the prime minister.
Their real power, however, is substantially limited due
to the president's wide reaching power to govern by decree through the Cabinet, which the _____ may not remove.
statism in Russia
Russia's value of a strong state that could protect them from their geographic vulnerabilities in contrast to a taste for individualism and civil society; the expectation that the state will take an active role in the lives of its citizens
issue decrees with the force of law
Vladimir Putin centralized power to the Russian Presidency through his power to __________, which act as the law of the land.
The Duma today has very little it can do as a check against this power.
People's Liberation Army (PLA)
The __________ is the unified land, sea, air, and missile forces of the PRC.
suspend a law or regulation
• Vladimir Putin centralized power to the Russian Presidency through his power to _____________________________ in one of Russia's regional governments if he believes it is contrary to the Russian Constitution, laws or treaties of the Russian Federation, or a violation of human rights.
Removing Constitutional Term Limits
Both the Presidents of Russia (Vladimir Putin) and China (Xi Jinping) have centralized power to the Presidency by _____________________
Formal Powers of the President of Russia
• APPOINTMENT OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND THE CABINET
• LEGISLATIVE POWERS
• ISSUING DECREES WITH THE FORCE OF LAW
• SUSPENSION OF LOCAL LAWS
• PARDONS AND REPRIEVES
• FOREIGN POLICY
Syrian Civil War, Refugee Crisis
Starts with Arab Spring, In Syria, March, 2011: pro-democracy protest,
Syrian security forces fire on protesters, many are killed, more take to the streets
July, 2011: Protests all over Syria demanding al-Assad's resignation
Sparks Civil War throughout Syria
Estimates today: 450,000-500,000 people killed
Russian Judicial Branch
The Russian Constitution of 1993 attempted to establish an independent judiciary, but this goal is currently eluding Russia.
none of the cases of political prosecutions brought against oppositional oligarchs were ever challenged by the Russian judiciary.
No member of the Russian security services, such as the FSB, has ever been prosecuted for violating citizens' rights.
It is generally assumed in Russia that judges may be bought off with bribes or favors to achieve favorable rulings from the court.
Constitutional Limits on the Chinese President
The Chinese constitution does not limit the power of the Chinese president. Therefore the Chinese president is only limited by his rivals within the CCP.
China - standing committee
In China, the CCP is run by a committee of 7. From the Committee the Party Secretary is chosen. The Party secretary is also the President of China.
The Guardian Council v. Majlis
The Guardian Council also exercises a tremendous amount of control over who runs for the Majlis.
More than 5,000 candidates registered to run in 2012, but only 3,400 of them were approved to be on the ballot.
National People's Congress
In theory, the CCP's highest body is the _____________. In practice, the Party Congress is too large and meets too infrequently - once every five years - to exercise any real authority. Instead, it functions primarily as a "rubber stamp" of broad policy decisions made by smaller and more powerful party structures.
The Guardian Council v. The Iranian Presidential election
There are significant restrictions on who may run for president in Iran. The Guardian Council has the power to vet the list of candidates and reject any they do not approve of.
A ___________ entrusts rule of the state to clerical religious authorities simultaneously with their religious role.
Rules of the regime and laws passed by the government are often required to be consistent with religious doctrines asserted by clerics.
In Iran, since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the country has been an Islamic Republic, in which supreme political authority rests with the Supreme Leader, a senior cleric chosen by a body of fellow clerics
Iranian Sovereignty lies in
God (Allah) and the Iranian people (elections)
Assembly of Religious Experts
The ___________ is comprised of eighty-eight members who are elected by voters directly after they prove their religious qualifications on a test administered by the Guardian Council.
Their only clear power is to remove the Supreme Leader, or to appoint a new one when there is a vacancy.
When the Guardian Council rejects a law from the Majlis, the Majlis has an opportunity to "correct" the law. If they cannot work out an agreement with the Guardian Council, the matter is referred to the _____________ to resolve the dispute.
Formal Powers of the Iranian Supreme Leader
* is the "vital link" between branches of government
* determines the "interests of Islam" can dismiss the president
* is the commander-in-chief of the military and can appoint and dismiss officers
* nominates and can remove judges and prosecutors
* appoints half the members of the Guardian Council
* appoints the Minister of Justice
* appoints the director of national radio and television
China is a _________, meaning that because the Chinese Communist Party is entrenched as the central institution governing the state, practices within the Party determine how government works, and government institutions' roles, powers, and responsibilities change as dynamics within the Party change.
Structure of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
The power is most concentrated in the inner group of central leaders at the top of the national Party, the standing committee, which chooses one of their members to act as general secretary of the Communist Party.
Has the Supreme Leader ever been removed from power?
NO, The Supreme Leader is chosen by the Assembly of Religious Experts, and can also be removed
from office by the Assembly of Religious Experts- although this has never been tested!
Powers of the Iranian Supreme Leader
• dismiss the president or members of the Guardian Council for any reason.
• command all branches of the Iranian military.
• declare war and peace.
• appoint administrators and judges at all levels of Iranian government.
• choose six of the twelve members of the Guardian Council.
• appoint heads of all state-owned enterprises, including media outlets.
The formal powers of the President of Iran
• elected by voters every four years and can serve up to two terms.
The Iranian president has the power to:
• devise the budget for approval of the Majlis.
• propose legislation to the Majlis.
• nominate Cabinet members for approval of the Majlis.
• chair meetings of the Cabinet, the National Security Council, and the Supreme Council
of the Cultural Revolution.
• send and receive foreign ambassadors.
The formal powers of the Iranian Majlis (legislative branch)
______ is directly elected by Iranian voters every four years, after candidates are vetted by the Guardian Council.
The Majlis has the power to:
• introduce and pass legislation (although most is proposed by the president).
• approve the six members of the Guardian Council nominated by the Chief Judge.
• investigate corruption and misconduct in the bureaucracy and judiciary.
• approve the president's choices for Cabinet, and remove Cabinet members.
• approve the budget devised by the president.
The Guardian Council
comprised of twelve men, six of whom are clerics chosen by the Supreme leader, and six of whom are lawyers nominated by the Chief Judge (who is himself
appointed by the Supreme Leader), and confirmed by the Majlis.
Unelected Leaders in Iran
Formal Powers of the Iranian Guardian Council
• reject any law passed by the Majlis if it is contradictory to the constitution or principles of Islam, and send it back for correction.
• reject candidates for the presidency or Majlis based on their interpretation of the qualifications in the constitution.
• administer a test and interview to candidates for the Assembly of Religious Experts, and determine what "threshold" will be applied for allowing candidates on the ballot or not.
The President of Iran v. The Supreme Leader
The Supreme Leader is considered the chief jurist, the leading interpreter of Islamic law (the Shari'ah).
The Iranian president is the head of government, possessing many administrative powers, but his actions are always under the shadow of the Supreme Leader, who may dismiss him from office at any moment he chooses.
The Majiles v. The Guardian Council
The Majlis acts as Iran's unicameral legislative assembly, though its laws must keep the approval of the Guardian Council.
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