77 terms

GCSE Glossary Biology

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

ACCOMMODATION
adjusting for near and far objects in the eye
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
the movement of substances against the concentration gradients and or across a cell membranes, using energy
ADAPTATION
a variation in an organism making it more suited to its environment
AEROBIC
cellular respiration with oxygen
ANAEROBIC
cellular respiration without oxygen
ALLELE
alternative forms of the same gene
ALVEOLI
are air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange occurs
AMYLASE
catalyses the breakdown of carbohydrates into glucose
AORTA
is the main artery of the body, supplies oxygenated blood to tissues and organs
ARTERY
carries blood away from heart to the tissues, thick muscle, narrow lumen
ATRIA
have thin walls since they only pump blood to ventricles
ASEXUAL
reproduction which involves only one parent and produces offspring which are genetically identical
AUXIN
plant hormones which are involved in controlling the phototropisms
BACTERIA
are single celled organisms that have no true nucleus
CAPILLARY
Connect arteries and veins
Carry both oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
Wall are very thin
CHLOROPLAST
the plant organelles which contain chlorophyll. They are the site of photosynthesis
CHROMOSOME
A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes
CLONE
Offspring are identical no genetic variation
DECOMPOSE
to decay or to break down into basic elements
DIFFUSION
The movement of particles from a region of high concentration to low concentration.
DIGESTION
is the breakdown of large insoluble molecules to smaller soluble ones.
DILATE
Make or become wider, larger, or more open
DOMINANT
gene that produces the same phenotype in the organism whether or not its allele identical; "the dominant gene for brown eyes"
EFFECTOR
An organ or cell that acts in response to a stimulus
EMBRYO
6 days after the egg has been fertilised the ball of cells is now called an embryo
EMULSIFY
breaks large drops of fat into smaller ones
ENDOSCOPE
a long slender medical instrument for examining the interior of a bodily organ or performing minor surgery
ENZYMES
biological catalysts
EUTROPHICATION
when a lake or river becomes enriched with nutrients eg from fertiliser applied to fields, excess plant growth
FOETUS
the developing embryo through the gestation period
GAMETE
A mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote
GENE
A unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring
HOMEOSTASIS
maintaining a constant internal environment
HORMONE
chemical message which are secreted by endocrine glands and carried around the body in the blood to the organs that they affect
HYDROCARBON
a compound made up of hydrogen and carbon
HYPOTHALAMUS
the part of the brain which regulates many body functions eg temperature, thirst hunger and sleeping. It also controls the production of many hormones from the pituitary gland.
INHERITANCE
attributes acquired via biological heredity from the parents
LIPASE
breaks fats down into fatty acids and glycerol
MEIOSIS
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms; the nucleus divides into four nuclei each containing half the chromosome number (leading to gametes in animals and spores in plants)
MITOSIS
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
MOLECULE
A group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction
MONOMER
A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer
MUTATION
The changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations
NEURONE
basic unit of the nervous system they are cells which carry minute electrical impulses around the body
OSMOSIS
the net movement of water down a concentration gradient from an area of high concentration of water molecules to an area of low concentration of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane.
OVARY
- a hollow chamber. The ovules develop from the walls of the ...
PALISADE CELL
They contain chloroplasts, which convert the energy stored in photons to chemical energy through photosynthesis
PERISTALSIS
muscles can contract, behind the bolus and open in front of it, causing the food to be pushed along the gullet in a process called
PHLOEM
tissue is made up of living cells. It transports sugars for energy (sucrose mainly) and amino acids for cell building all around the plant.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
the process by which plants make food combining carbon dioxide and water to make glucose using light energy captured using chlorophyll
PLASMA
is the yellow liquid which transports dissolved food molecules, carbon dioxide and urea as well as all the blood cells.
POPULATION
is all of the members of the same species in a particular area
PREDATOR
An animal that naturally preys on others
PRODUCER
usually green plants, convert light energy to chemical energy in food compounds
PROTEASE
breaks down proteins into amino acids
PROTEIN
are made up of long chains called amino acids
RECEPTOR
are specialized nerve cells, which are adapted to respond to a stimulus
RECESSIVE
heritable characteristics controlled by genes that are expressed in offspring only when inherited from both parents
RESPIRATION
is the process that releases energy from food in your cells.
SEMI LUNAR VALVE
Each of a pair of valves in the heart, at the bases of the aorta and the pulmonary artery, consisting of three cusps or flaps that prevent the flow of blood back into the heart
SEXUAL
2 parents
Gametes produced
Variation
STOMATA
minute pores on the leaf surface which allow the uptake of co2 for photosynthesis. Usually found in lower epidermis.
SYNAPSE
connection between 2 or more neurones where a nerve signal is transferred by chemicals which diffuse across the gap
TESTES
produces testosterone which in turn triggers sperm and hair production and deepens voice.
TRANSPIRATION
water evaporates from leaves and lowers the water potential in the leaf tissues.
TRICUSPID
valve with three cusps; situated between the right atrium and the right ventricle
VACUOLE
is a membrane bound space present in all plant cells. It contains a mixture of water, salts and sugars, otherwise known as sap.
VARIATION
differences in sets of characteristics
VASODILATION
When the blood vessels supplying your skin capillaries dilate, blood flows into the capillaries. You flush and lose heat by radiation through your skin
VASOCONSTRICTION
blood vessels leading to surface capillaries shunts blood away from the skin. The warm blood is kept deep inside your body so that less heat is lost.
VEIN
• Carry blood from tissues to heart
• Carry deoxygenated blood
• Have valves to stop backflow of blood
VENA CAVA
A large vein carrying deoxygenated blood into the heart
VENTRICLE
Each of the two main chambers of the heart, left and right
VILLI
finger-like projections which help to increase the surface area available for the molecules to be absorbed through in the small intestine
VIRUS
• No cellular structure
• Smaller than bacteria
• They can only produce inside living cells
XYLEM
transport tissue in plants which carries water and mineral ions up from the root though the stems to the leaves.
ZYGOTE
a fertilized ovum
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
STUDY GUIDE