20 terms

Introduction to Psychology


Terms in this set (...)

Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Social Science
A field that studies people and the relationships among them.
Scientific Method
A logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem
4 Goals of Psychology
Describe, Explain, Predict, Control
A scientist who studies the mind and behavior of humans and animals
A medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
Research Psychology
studies the origins, causes, or results of certain behaviors
Applied Psychology
The study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also, the application of psychological findings.
Evolutionary Psychology
Examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations.
Psychodynamic Perspective
A branch of psychology that studies how internal conflicts and unconscious drives influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.
Sigmund Freud
1856-1939; Field: psychoanalytic, personality; Contributions: id/ego/superego, reality and pleasure principles, ego ideal, defense mechanisms (expanded by Anna Freud), psychoanalysis, transference
Carl Jung
1875-1961; Field: neo-Freudian, analytic psychology; Contributions: people had conscious and unconscious awareness; archetypes; collective unconscious; libido is all types of energy, not just sexual; Studies: dream studies/interpretation
Behavioral Perspective
An approach to the study of psychology that focuses on the role of learning in explaining observable behavior.
BF Skinner
1904-1990; Field: behavioral; Contributions: created techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior; Studies: Skinner box
Ivan Pavlov
A Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) who discovered classical conditioning.
John Watson
American psychologist who founded behaviorism, emphasizing the study of observable behavior and rejecting the study of mental processes
Cognitive Perspective
A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior
Albert Bandura
1925-present; Field: sociocultural; Contributions: pioneer in observational learning, stated that people profit from the mistakes/successes of others; Studies: Bobo Dolls-adults demonstrated 'appropriate' play with dolls, children mimicked play
Humanistic Perspective
the psychological view that assumes the existence of the self and emphasizes the importance of self-awareness and the freedom to make choices
Abraham Maslow
1908-1970; Field: humanism; Contributions: hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied, self-actualization, transcendence