113 terms

7th Grade Civics Reporting Category 1

Florida Civics Exam Vocabulary Review for Reporting Category 1
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checks and balances
a principle of the federal government, according to the U.S. Constitution, that allows each branch of government to limit the power of the other branches
consent of the governed
an agreement made by the people to establish a government and abide by its laws
Enlightenment
a period in European history when many educated people stressed the importance of learning and reasoning; education was considered the key to understanding and solving society's problems
individual liberty
a person's ability to be free and independent
influence
having an effect or impact on the actions, behavior, opinions, etc., of another or others
natural law
laws passed by government to protect natural rights
natural rights
the belief that individuals are born with basic rights that cannot be taken away by governments; life, liberty, and property
separation of powers
the structure of the federal government, according to the U.S. Constitution, that sets up three branches with their own distinct powers and responsibilities
social contract
an implied agreement among the people of an organized society that defines the rights, duties, and limitations of the governed and the government
Founding Fathers
representatives from each of the 13 colonies who decided to meet and write a document stating their reasons for separation and independence from England
compact
an official agreement made by two or more parties
Common Sense
a pamphlet published by Thomas Paine in 1776 to convince the American colonists to support becoming independent from England
English Bill of Rights
a government document that expanded the powers of the English Parliament and expanded the rights of the people, as well as further limited the rights of the king; written by the members of the English Parliament in 1689
due process
the idea that people have the right to fair and reasonable laws, and that government leaders and officials have to follow rules when enforcing laws and treat all people in the same way
limited government
a government that has been limited in power by a constitution, or written agreement
limited monarchy
a system of government in which the king or queen shares authority with an elected legislature and agrees to be bound by a constitution or a set of laws, also known as a constitutional monarchy
Magna Carta
a government document that limited the power of the king of England and protected the rights of the nobility; written by the English nobles in 1215
Mayflower Compact
an agreement between individuals that created a government that would provide order and protect the rights of the colonists; written by a group of English Puritans in Massachusetts in 1620
Preamble
the introduction to the U.S. Constitution
rights
a set of things that people believe they should be free to do without restrictions
rule of law
a concept that those who govern are bound by the laws; no one is above the law
self-government
popular or representative system where the people create and run their own government
Thomas Paine
the colonial journalist who wrote Common Sense in 1776
duty
a tax
export
goods sent to another country
goods
merchandise or objects for sale or trade
import
goods brought into the country
individual rights
rights guaranteed or belonging to a person
legislature
governing body responsible for making laws
levy
to collect by legal authority
oppression
the use of authority or power in a cruel or unjust manner
Parliament
the name of the English legislature
representation
a person or group acting on behalf of another person or group
tax
money levied by a government for specific facilities or services
taxation without representation
the idea that it is unfair to tax someone without giving them a voice in government
abolish
to end
assent
to agree
consent of the governed
an agreement made by the people to establish a government and abide by its laws
deprive
to take something away
derive
to take
despotism
a system of government where the ruler has unlimited power
dissolve
to bring to an end
endow
to be given something naturally
grievance
a complaint
impel
to urge
impose
to establish by using authority or power
institute
to establish
natural rights
the belief that individuals are born with basic rights that cannot be taken away by governments
oppression
the use of authority or power in a cruel or unjust manner
quarter
to house
rectitude
the quality or state of being correct
self-evident
obvious, having no need of proof
tyranny
a government in which a single ruler possesses and abuses absolute power
tyrant
a single ruler that possess and abuses absolute government power
unalienable rights
basic rights of the people that may not be taken away
usurpation
the act of exercising power by force
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution
Declaration of Independence
a document written in 1776 that listed the basis for democratic government and the grievances of the colonists
Articles of Confederation
the first constitution of the United States, adopted in 1781 and replaced in 1789
confederation
a system of government where power is located with the independent states and there is little power in the central government
Constitutional Convention
a meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 where delegates decided to throw out the Articles of Confederation and draft the Constitution
debt
something owed; such as money
Shays' Rebellion
an event when 2000 Massachusetts farmers rebelled against land foreclosures and debt from the Revolutionary War
Articles of Confederation
the first constitution of the United States
enforce
to carry out effectively
defense
method of protecting oneself
domestic
referring to something at home, not foreign
insure
ensure, to make sure
justice
a system of establishing what is legal and illegal by fair rules
ordain
to establish something by law
posterity
future generations
Preamble
the introduction to the U.S. Constitution
tranquility
peace
union
something formed by combining parts, such as states into one country
welfare
well-being
establish justice
make a fair and honest system for all
form a more perfect union
create an even better government that will make life better for all
insure domestic tranquility
government will protect citizens from conflict in the country and make sure that states do not go to war with each other
promote the general welfare
government is focused on the public interest and that every state and individual can benefit from what the government can provide
provide for the common defense
protect the country from other countries or people that might try to harm us
secure the blessings of liberty to our posterity
secure liberty and freedom for current and future generations
checks and balances
a principle of the federal government, according to the U.S. Constitution, that allows each branch of government to limit the power of the other branches
constitutional government
a form of government based on a written set of laws that all citizens agree to; in this form of government, the constitution is the highest law of the land
judicial review
the power of the U.S. courts to examine the laws or actions of the legislative and executive branches of the government and to determine whether such actions are consistent with the U.S. Constitution
limited government
a government that has been limited in power by a constitution, or written agreement
Marbury v. Madison
U.S. Supreme Court case that established judicial review
separation of powers
the structure of the federal government, according to the U.S. Constitution, that sets up three branches with their own distinct powers and responsibilities
Anti-Federalist Papers
a series of essays written to counter and defeat the proposed U.S. Constitution
Anti-Federalists
a group of people in the early United States who opposed ratification of the U.S. Constitution because they feared a strong national government and a lack of protection for individual rights
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, establishing rights and protections for American citizens
Federalist Papers
a series of essays written to explain and defend the proposed U.S. Constitution
Federalists
a group of people in the early United States who favored the establishment of a strong national government and who worked for ratification of the U.S. Constitution
ratification
the process of formally approving something; ratification of the U.S. Constitution
citizen
a legal member of a state and/or country
law
a rule established by government or other source of authority to regulate people's conduct or activities
rule of law
a concept that those who govern are bound by the laws; no one is above the law
Eighth Amendment
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that provides freedom from excessive bail or fines and freedom from cruel or unusual punishment for a person accused of a crime
Fifth Amendment
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that provides protections to a person accused of a crime, including the right of due process. Due process is the concept that a person cannot have life, liberty, or property taken away without appropriate legal procedures and protections.
Fourth Amendment
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that provides freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. This amendment also states that warrants must only be issued with probable cause.
Sixth Amendment
an amendment to the Constitution that provides protections and rights to a person accused of a crime including the right to a speedy trial with an impartial jury
case law
law established by the outcome of former cases
civil law
law concerned with private relations between members of a community rather than criminal, military, or religious affairs
Code of Hammurabi
a written code of rules that guided the ancient society of Babylon; dates back to 1772 B.C.
common law
legal precedence based on customs and prior legal decisions; used in civil cases
constitutional law
the interpretation and implementation of the U.S. Constitution
criminal law
law that deals with crimes and the punishments associated with those crimes
juvenile law
law that deals with the actions and well-being of persons who are not yet adults
Magna Carta
a government document that limited the power of the king of England and protected the rights of the nobility; written by the English nobles in 1215
military law
laws that have been developed to meet the needs of the military
regulation
a rule an agency of the executive branch makes to enforce a law
source
a main reference or point of origin
statutory law
the written law enacted by a legislature, as distinguished from unwritten law or common law
type
a particular category, kind, or group
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