100 terms

7th Grade Civics Reporting Category 2

Florida Civics Exam Vocabulary Review for Reporting Category 2
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14th Amendment
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that defines citizenship, grants citizenship to former slaves, and defines voters as males at least 21 years of age
alien
any person not a citizen or national of a country
citizen
a legal member of a state and/or country
immigrant
a person who comes to a country to live permanently
law of blood
the principle that a person's nationality at birth is the same as that of his or her biological mother
law of soil
the principle that a person's nationality at birth is determined by the territory within which he or she was born
legal permanent resident
someone who is legally and permanently living in the U.S., but not a citizen
naturalization
the process by which an immigrant becomes a citizen
resident
someone who lives in a place for a minimum period of time
good moral character
not participating in certain crimes or behavior
common good
beliefs or actions that are seen as a benefit to the larger community rather than individual interests, also known as the public good
obligation
something a person is required to do
responsibility
something a person should do
selective service
a system by which men ages 18 through 25 register with the U.S. government for military service
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, establishing rights and protections for American citizens
cruel and unusual punishment
punishment prohibited by the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution; includes torture or other forms of punishment too severe for the crime committed
double jeopardy
the prosecution of a defendant for a criminal offense for which he has already been tried; prohibited in the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
due process of law
a system of justice according to established rules and principles; based on the principle in the Fifth Amendment that a person cannot be deprived of life, liberty, or property without appropriate legal procedures and protections
eminent domain
the right of the government to take private property for public use; the Fifth Amendment requires that fair compensation be made when property is taken under this
equal protection under the law
a guarantee under the 14th Amendment that a state must treat a citizen or class of citizens the same as it treats other citizens or classes in like circumstances
First Amendment
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibiting Congress from establishing a religion, and from interfering with freedom of religious exercise, press, speech, assembly, or petition
pleading the fifth
the act of a person refusing to testify under oath in a court of law on the grounds that the answers could be used as evidence against him to convict him of a criminal offense
right to bear arms
the idea in the Second Amendment that people have an individual right to own and carry weapons
right to legal counsel
the right of a defendant to be assisted by an attorney, and if he cannot afford his own lawyer, the government must appoint one for him; established in the Sixth Amendment
search and seizure
the process by which
police or other authorities who suspect that a crime has been committed do a search of a person's property and collect any relevant evidence to the crime; protection from illegal search and seizure is in the Fourth Amendment
suffrage
the right to vote; protected in the 15th, 19th, 24th and 26th Amendments
trial by jury
a trial in which the issue is determined by a judge and a jury, usually with 12 members, whose job is to determine facts and make a judgment of guilty or not guilty; protected in the Sixth Amendment
unenumerated rights
according to the Ninth Amendment, any right that is not specifically addressed in the Constitution still may be protected (e.g., privacy)
constitutionality
whether or not something is legal under the U.S. Constitution
freedom of press
the right of the press to write and print news and information free from government involvement; guaranteed in the First Amendment
freedom of religious exercise
the right for citizens to practice the religion of their choice without government involvement; guaranteed in the First Amendment
freedom of speech
the right for citizens to speak freely without government involvement; guaranteed in the First Amendment
freedom to petition the government
the freedom for citizens to engage in any nonviolent, legal means of encouraging or disapproving government action, directed to the judicial, executive or legislative branch; guaranteed in the First Amendment
symbolic speech
action that expresses an idea
appellate process
the process of asking a higher court to decide whether a trial was conducted properly
ex post facto
a Latin term meaning "after the fact"
ex post facto law
a law that makes an act a crime after the crime has been committed
habeas corpus
the principle that keeps the government from holding a citizen indefinitely without showing cause
independent judiciary
the principle that decisions from the courts are fair and impartial and are not subject to undue influence from the other branches of government
public interest
common benefit, the general of the public
precedent
a court decision in an earlier case with facts and legal issues similar to those in a case currently before a court
privacy
not in public
safeguard
to protect
summary judgment
a judgment decided by a trial court without that case going to trial; a summary judgment is an attempt to stop a case from going to trial
writ
law
draftee
someone registered for selective service that is chosen by the government for military service
civil disobedience
the refusal to obey certain laws as a form of political protest
economic freedom
the freedom to produce, trade, or use any goods or services without use of force, fraud, or theft
eminent domain
the right of the government to take private property for public use; the Fifth Amendment requires that fair compensation be made when property is taken under this
forced internment
the confinement of a group of people, especially during a war
freedom of assembly
the right to hold meetings and form groups without interference by the government; guaranteed in the First Amendment
property rights
the right to own property; mentioned in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments
13th Amendment
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that outlawed slavery in the United States
14th Amendment
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that defines citizenship, grants citizenship to former slaves and defines voters as males at least 21 year of age
15th Amendment
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that makes it illegal for the federal or state governments to deny someone the right to vote based on their race
19th Amendment
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that grants women the right to vote
24th Amendment
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that made poll taxes illegal as a condition for voting
26th Amendment
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that lowers the minimum voting age to 18
amendment
a change to the U.S. Constitution
civil rights
the rights belonging to citizens; traditionally refers to the basic rights to be free from unequal treatment based on certain protected characteristics (i.e. race, gender, disability)
Civil Rights Act of 1964
a federal law that prohibits employment discrimination based on race, sex, color, religion, or national origin
Civil Rights Act of 1968
a federal law that prohibits discrimination related to the sale, rental and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin or sex
discrimination
unfair treatment
Equal Rights Amendment
a proposed amendment to the U.S. Constitution outlawing discrimination based on sex
literacy test
a test used to determine whether or not someone was eligible to register vote
poll tax
a fee required to vote
prohibit
to forbid or disallow
segregation
the separation of people, such as segregation based on race
states' rights
a power or issue for individual states to determine
suffrage
the right to vote
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a federal law that banned race discrimination in voting practices by federal, state, and local governments
arbiter
a person with the power to decide a dispute
Brown v. Board of Education
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that "separate but equal" segregation was not equal in public education
Bush v. Gore
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that states cannot violate the Equal Protection Clause under the Fourteenth Amendment when undertaking election recounts.
District of Columbia v. Heller
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to possess a firearm
Equal Protection Clause
the section of the Fourteenth Amendment that says that states must apply the law equally and cannot discriminate against citizens or groups of citizens
executive privilege
the belief that the conversations between the president and his aides are confidential
Gideon v. Wainwright
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld the Sixth Amendment right that all defendants must be appointed a lawyer if they cannot afford their own attorney
Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that the First Amendment does not protect all types of student speech in school
In re Gault
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that juvenile court must comply with the Fourteenth Amendment
judicial opinion
judgment by a court
judicial review
the power of the U.S. courts to examine the laws or actions of the legislative and executive branches of the government and to determine whether such actions are consistent with the U.S. Constitution
juvenile rights
rights of people under age 18
landmark
an important or unique decision, event, fact, or discovery
legal equality
the concept that everyone is equal in the eyes of the law
legal precedent
a judicial decision that is used as an example in dealing with later, similar cases
Marbury v. Madison
U.S. Supreme Court case that established judicial review
Miranda v. Arizona
U.S. Supreme Court cases that upheld the Fifth Amendment protection from self-incrimination
Plessy v. Ferguson
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that "separate but equal" segregation was not discrimination
prosecute
to carry on a legal action against an accused person to prove his or her guilt
rights of the accused
the rights included in the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Amendments: protection from unreasonable search and seizure, double jeopardy, and self-incrimination, the right to due process, right to a speedy and public trial, trial by jury, the right to be informed of criminal charges, right to be confronted by adverse witnesses, right to an attorney, protection from self-incrimination
segregation
the separation of people, such as segregation based on race
self-incrimination
the right in the Fifth Amendment that protects a person from being forced to reveal to the police, prosecutor, judge, or jury any information that might subject him or her to criminal prosecution
separation of powers
the structure of the federal government, according to the U.S. Constitution, that sets up three branches with their own distinct powers and responsibilities
Supremacy Clause
the clause that states that the U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land, and that national laws are supreme over state laws, found in Article VI
Tinker v. Des Moines
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld a student's First Amendment right to engage in symbolic speech in school
unanimous
in complete agreement
United States v. Nixon
U.S. Supreme Court case that limited executive privilege
civil liberties
rights guaranteed by the laws of a country, (i.e., the Bill of Rights)
separate but equal
the concept that having separate facilities for African-Americans and white people was not illegal as long as the facilities were equal, from the U.S. Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson
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