Blair World History II -- Exam 1

Toussaint L'Overture
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early 1800s; Jean-Jacques Dessalines leads 20 year campaign against the french until freedom in 1825
Haitian Republic = Unity is strength; Makes europe very nervous because they see that slaves can take over;
French government demands Billions of dollars from Haiti; Embargo on trade = no trade with Haiti
Don't want to treat black diplomats as regular people
Takes them the bill in 1825, didn't pay off until 20th century (if they don't pay france would take over and colonize them again)
Haiti misses two generations of infrastructure and self help paying off this bill
Hastingsleader of BEIC, many policies were put into place under him; slowly forced own laws and didn't consider regional culture and variations (Hindu and Muslim become dividing categories); military grew a lot under hastings= India's control slowly going away British powerful when India is weakThird Estatesupporting other two (church and nobility) financially Most people have enormous tax bills and zero political powerCommittee of Public Safetyin french revolution law of suspects (anyone who indicted slightest lack of support killed = 17,000 killed) Leaders also executed (robspierre) / late 1700sFirst Opium WarThe war was begun by the British in response to Chinese efforts to crack down on the importation of opium; ended with The Treaty of Nanjing (signed 1842) where gb got hong kong as colony, 4 more ports opened for european traders, "most favored nation" status, and brit citizens in china not subject to chinese law, only british lawCottage industrymanufactoring goods in private homes;NapoleonAsked to take over regime as head of three-man committee in November of 1799 but soon ruling single handedly Dictator until 1815 Napoleonic Code = supports some ideas of revolution but also has secret police force that squashes any political opponents When these two things conflicted also protected own power Invades russia in 1812 650,000 soldiers went - 10,000 came back fit for battle 1814 = exiled; came back and took control of army 1815 = for real exile on island"Manufactory"factory where you can discipline everyone in one place 80% of people were farmersCastaHard to overthrow colonial power Class system by race and classes Elites wanted to stay in power in society Almost all of latin america had independence by 1830ish Countries were unstable because elites were only focused on maintaining statusEnclosure movementEnlightenmentProletariatworking class. People who worked for a wage doing manual labor and did not own any of the things they used in their jobCongress of ViennaEuropean leaders pledge to collaborate to (1) stop any European country fromMercantilismA system that seeks to increase the wealth of one country at the expense of others. In an 18th century Atlantic world context, a system in which raw materials are extracted from the Western hemisphere colonies to enrich European countries.Armchair patriotismAbsolute Monarchyis one is which there are no formal checks on the power of the king and queen -- all power flows from them, and they have the final word on absolutely everythingVirtueLimited Monarchyformal check on the power of the monarch; in the case of GB = PARLIAMENTCoverturelaws that stripped married women of independent legal person hood; american revolution; who is the revolution really even for? only white men; late 18th centuryParliamentgb's limited monarchyGradual Emancipationapproach to ending slavery that called for the phasing out of slavery over a period of time; many gradual emancipation proposals were built around the granting of freedom to children of slaves who were born after a specified sate, usually when they attained a specified age; in this way, as existing slaves aged and dies, slavery would gradually die too. Many of the northern states, which abolished slavery following the American Revolution, adopted this method of ending the institution.Social contract theoryJohn locke, which stated that governments were social contracts between the people and the governed, which the people had the right to terminate if the government wasn't living up to its end of contract All people have equal capacity to learn and develop = people are born as blank slates (EVERYBODY) Anti-authoritarianSlaveryThe Centrality of Slavery 1700-1800 = high tide of atlantic slave trade ⅔ of all slaves were taken in 75 year period Slave Holding Forts, Ghana 10% died before they ever got on the boat Malnutrition and overwork Most profitable place; life expectancy in conditions were 3 yearsWahhabismWahhabism (which Wahhab himself never called it) was a creed based on removing all of the evolutions and changes in Muslim doctrine and practice since the death of Mohammed, in order to return the faith to its "orginial" form as understood by Wahhab and other religious leadersAligarh MovementNamed for Sayyid Ahmad of Aligarh, an Indian Muslim from a family with connections to the British East India Company Because British were not keeping them from stopping practicing their faith, they were fine Argued that Islam provided a set of foundational principles that people could use to make their own moral decisions, and that personal morality was the most important thing in living a good life and being a good muslimIslamic ModernizationSayyid Jamaluddin-i-Afghan Modernization didn't mean being a good muslim Modernization meant: Freeing people to read and interpret the qur'an themselves Replacing absolute monarchies with a democratic form of government known as the shura Muslim people are looking at wrong aspects of europe (should be looking at european science, rejecting European ways of structuring society (social))TanzimatIn 1839, series of reforms patterned on the revolutions of the Atlantic World were implemented. Tanzimat: Guaranteed life, honor, and property of all citizens regardless of religion Introduced a more equitable tax system Eliminated the family-based military and replaced it with a draft so that all people served Tanzimat also jiustified all of these things with Sharia law and other ISlamic justifications, so the reforms did not undermine the state religion or the empire's identity as a Muslim stateLiberalismOutgrowth of 18th century Enlightenment-based political theory Valued individual liberty as the most important thing Believed the government's role was facilitating maximum freedom for individuals Dominant ideas: opposed government involvement in the economy as an intrusion on individual liberty Also opposed absolute monarchies which did not provide a voice for people in government Mill All british men did not get the right to vote (only the wealthy could) until end of 19th centuryJohn Stuart Millradical, believed the all members of society should have equal access to government (no matter gender or race), worked for early women's suffrage: we have to use free speech (most important part)Socialismin 19th century Europe argued that industrial capitalist economies, especially as currently practiced with minimal government involvement, were the root of social problems. Believed that liberty could not be achieved without economic equalityMarxismargued that a conflict between producers of goods and capitalist investors/business owners were inevitable, and that only when producers (the proletariat) had defeated the capitalists could a socialist society truly come into being, one which would be run by the proletariat and would guarantee true liberty and equalityTaiping RebellionHong Xiuquan = leader of rebellion Taught that he was the second coming of Jesus So radical and polarizing that both sides of rebellion are firm in their beliefs Civil war in China in response to defeats of the Opium Wars 30 million died in 15 years = mUCH higher than american civil war which also was happening at this time Use european style weaponry to put taiping rebellion down Afterwards government tries some reform Self-strengthening movement (late 1860s-early 1880s) tried to strengthen traditional Chinese religion and culture while incorporating Western technology. Similar in its approach to Islamic Modernization of the same era.Caste War of the YucatanYucatan Peninsula less colonized than other places Mayan region is not affected by colonization Right around 1820, non-mayan planters start buying land and clearing it for sugar plantations Hire mayan workers by giving them loans and the interest is working on the plantations Mayan treated as a separate caste United states government bought mexican land and gave them $15 million for it Mexican army gains momentum because they now have 15 million dollars Finally wins in 1901