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44 terms

Endocrine System Characteristics

STUDY
PLAY
ENDOCRINE refers to the secretion of __________ chemical signals in the form of __________
INTERCELLULAR; HORMONES
An AUTOCRINE chemical messenger (acts locally/travels some distance) and stimulates:
ACTS LOCALLY; the cell that released it or same cell type
A PARACRINE chemical messenger (acts locally/travels some distance) and stimulates:
ACTS LOCALLY; nearby cells
A NEUROTRANSMITTER is a chemical messenger secreted by __________ into a __________ __________
NEURON; SYNAPTIC CLEFT
An ENDOCRINE chemical messenger is secreted into the __________ and (acts locally/travels some distance) on target tissues:
BLOODSTREAM; TRAVELS SOME DISTANCE
A NEUROHORMONE is a chemical messenger secreted by __________, which (enters/does not enter) the bloodstream and functions as a hormone
NEURONS; ENTERS
A __________ is a type of neurotransmitter that, when secreted by a neuron, diffuses out into the CSF and influences the activity of the brain (examples include serotonin and acetylcholine)
NEUROMODULATOR
White blood cell stimulating their own replication is an example of an __________ chemical messenger:
AUTOCRINE
Histamine, released by white blood cells during an allergic reaction, is an example of an __________ chemical messenger:
PARACRINE
Hormones that control the release and inhibition of other endocrine hormones:
TROPIC
TROPIC hormones are produced and secreted by the __________ __________, and their release is controlled by the __________
ANTERIOR PITUITARY; HYPOTHALAMUS
A __________ is a secreted or excreted chemical from the body that triggers a behavioral response in others of the same species
PHEROMONE
Oxytocin, ADH and norepinephrine are examples of a __________ chemical messenger
NEUROHORMONE
A hormone is a(n) __________ chemical messenger that is secreted into the __________ travels to a distant target tissue and binds to specific receptors to produce a response
ENDOCRINE; BLOODSTREAM
Hormones (sometimes/often/always) enter the bloodstream to travel to their target cells.
OFTEN
Systems in which the hypothalamus plays an important role
ENDOCRINE, NERVOUS
System that resembles the postal service delivering a "bulk mailing"
ENDOCRINE
System that uses certain molecules (i.e.; epinephrine) as neurotransmitters
NERVOUS
System that uses certain molecules (i.e.; epinephrine) as hormones
ENDOCRINE
The nervous system secretes __________, which are released (into the bloodstream/directly onto target cells)
NEUROTRANSMITTERS; directly onto target cells
The endocrine system secretes __________, which are released (into the bloodstream/directly onto target cells)
HORMONES; into the bloodstream
The nervous system responds (more quickly/slower) than the endocrine system
MORE QUICKLY
The (nervous/endocrine) system produces longer lasting effects
ENDOCRINE
Hormones of the endocrine system fluctuate in concentration within the bloodstream and can be described as __________-__________ signals
AMPLITUDE-MODULATED
Action potentials of the nervous system vary in frequency to produce weak or strong stimuli, and can be described as __________-__________ signals
FREQUENCY-MODULATED
A hormone's life span is expressed as its __________, or the amount of time it takes for:
HALF-LIFE; 50% of the circulating hormone to be removed from the circulation and excreted
Hormones that require transport assistance to reach their target before they are degraded are called:
BOUND HORMONES
Hormones that 1) do not require transport assistance or 2) dissociate from their binding proteins at target tissues are called:
FREE HORMONES
Only (free/bound) hormones are able to diffuse through capillary walls and bind to target tissues
FREE
The half-life of some hormones is prolonged because:
they can circulate in the blood stream bound to binding proteins
Hormones that bind to binding proteins have (shorter/longer) half-lives than hormones that do not require binding proteins
LONGER
What are the 2 chemical categories of hormones?
1) lipid-soluble
2) water-soluble
Most lipid-soluble hormones are transported in the blood as (free/bound) hormones
BOUND
The half-life of some lipid-soluble hormones is prolonged when:
they are bound to binding proteins
Hormones (are/are not/are sometimes) secreted at a constant rate
ARE SOMETIMES
__________ is the process in which lipid-soluble hormones become attached to water-soluble molecules from the __________, allowing excretion from body at a greater rate
CONJUGATION; LIVER
Hormones are degraded by __________, removed from bloodstream by the __________ and__________, and excreted in __________ and __________
ENZYMES; LIVER and KIDNEY; URINE and BILE
What are the 3 mechanisms that stimulate hormonal release?
1) Humoral
2) Neural
3) Hormonal
What are the 3 mechanisms by which hormonal release is inhibited?
1) release of counteractive inhibiting-hormone (humoral)
2) prevention of hormone secretion (neural)
3) prevention of hormone release (hormonal)
The self-limiting process by which further hormone secretion is prevented once a set point is achieved
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISM
The self-promoting process by which the stimulation of hormone secretion increases over time
POSITIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISM
The process by which a target cell decreases its sensitivity to a hormone through a decrease in receptor number
DOWN-REGULATION
The process by which a target cell increases its sensitivity to a hormone through an increase in receptor number
UP-REGULATION
Process by which a single hormone, binding to a membrane-bound receptor activates G proteins, which in turn activate enzymes that produce an enormous amount of final product
CASCADE EFFECT