145 terms

7th Grade Civics Reporting Category 4

Florida Civics Exam Vocabulary Review for Reporting Category 4
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absolute monarchy
a form of autocracy where a person becomes the sole leader of a country by being born into a family of rulers
anarchy
the absence of any form of government
autocracy
a form of government where one person has unlimited power
communism
a form of government in which a single ruling party owns and controls all production and distribution of goods, and in which no private ownership is allowed
democracy
a system of government in which political power resides with the people
dictatorship
a form of autocracy where a military leader becomes the leader of a country often through violent means
direct democracy
a form of government in which the power to govern lies directly in the hands of the people rather than through elected representatives
form of government
the way a government is structured
monarchy
a form of government headed by a king or queen who inherits the position, rules for life, and holds power that can range anywhere between limited to absolute
oligarchy
a form of government in which a small group has total control and power
representative democracy
a system of government in which the people elect representatives to make policies and laws for them, also known as a republic
republic
a system of government in which the people elect representatives to make policies and laws for them, also known as a representative democracy
socialism
an economic system in which the government owns the primary means of production
confederal
a system of government where power is located with the independent states and there is little power in the central government
federal
a system of government where power is shared between a central government and states
government
a system or organization for exercising authority over a body of people
governor
the head of a state government
parliamentary
a system of government where power lies with the legislative body and the leader of the country is part of the legislature
president
the head of state, or leader, in a federal system
prime minister
the head of state in a parliamentary system
unitary
a system of government where almost all power is located with the central government
appellate jurisdiction
the power to hear appeals of cases which have been tried in lower courts
armed forces
the nation's military (Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marines, National Guard and Navy)
article
a numbered chapter or section of a contract, treaty, or constitution
coining money
the power of the legislative branch to print money (coins and bills) for use
concurrent powers
powers shared by the national, state, and/or local government
declaration of war
the power of Congress to vote to go to war with another country
delegated powers
the powers specifically named and assigned to the federal government or prohibited to be exercised by the states under the U.S. Constitution, also known as enumerated powers
elastic clause
the power of Congress to pass all laws they deem necessary and proper for carrying out its enumerated powers (also known as implied powers)
enumerated powers
the powers specifically named and assigned to the federal government or prohibited to be exercised by the states under the U.S. Constitution, also known as delegated powers
executive branch
the branch of government that enforces the laws made by the legislative branch
foreign relations
the power of the executive branch to decide on the United States' dealings with other countries in order to achieve national goals
immigration
the movement of people from one country to another country
impeach
to bring formal charges of wrongdoing against a public official (such as the U.S. President)
implied powers
powers not written in the U.S. Constitution but are necessary and proper in order for the federal government to carry out the expressed powers; Article 1, Section 8, Clause 18 gives Congress the power to do what it deems "necessary and proper" to carry out the delegated powers
judicial branch
the branch of government that interprets the laws made by the legislative branch
legislative branch
the branch of government that creates laws
naturalization laws
laws made by Congress that people from other countries must follow in order to become legal citizens of the United States
necessary and proper
the power of Congress to make laws that they need to carry out their enumerated powers
original jurisdiction
the power of a court to be the first to hear a case on a specific topic; for the U.S. Supreme Court this involves cases involving conflicts between Congress and the president and in cases in which a state is a party
presidential appointments
the power of the U.S. President to choose members of his or her cabinet, ambassadors to other nations, and other officials in his or her administration
regulate
regulate to control, govern, or direct according to rule
trade
to buy and sell goods or services
U.S. Congress
the national legislative body of the U.S., consisting of the Senate, or upper house, and the House of Representatives, or lower house
U.S. House of Representatives
the lower house of the U.S. Congress
U.S. Senate
the upper house of the U.S. Congress
U.S. Supreme Court
the highest court of the United States; it sits at the top of the federal court system
enumerate powers
the powers specifically named and assigned to the federal government or prohibited to be exercised by the states under the U.S. Constitution, also known as delegated powers
federal government
the organization through which political authority is exercised at the national level, government of the United States
federalism
a system of government in which power is divided and shared between national, state, and local government
local government
the governing body of a municipality or county
reserved powers
powers that are not granted to the federal government that belong to (are reserved to) the states and the people, see Tenth Amendment
state government
the organization through which political authority is exercised at the state level, government of a specific state
Supremacy Clause
the clause that states that the U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land, and that national laws are supreme over state laws, found in Article VI
Tenth Amendment
the final amendment in the Bill of Rights, it states: "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."
amendment
a change to the U.S. Constitution
caucus
a meeting to select a candidate or promote a policy
ratify
to confirm by expressing consent, approval, or formal sanction
rescind
to officially cancel or overturn
propose
to make a suggestion
unconstitutional
not in agreement with the U.S Constitution
act
legislation which has passed both houses of Congress in identical form, been signed into law by the president, or passed over his veto, therefore becoming law
appointment
job or duty that is given to a person
appointment confirmation
the process of the Senate approving the president's choices for certain positions within the government
bicameral
having two chambers (e.g. the two houses of Congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives)
bill
an idea being suggested to become a law
Cabinet
persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers
Chief Justice
the head justice, the Chief Justice is "first among equals"
city commissioner or council member
a member of the governing body of a city
committee selection
how representatives and senators are chosen for their assigned committees
conference committee
a temporary panel composed of House and Senate members, which is formed for the purpose of reconciling differences in legislation that has passed both chambers. Conference committees are usually convened to resolve differences on major and controversial legislation.
constituents
people public officials are elected to represent
county commissioner or council member
a member of the governing body of a county
court order
a formal statement from a court that orders someone to do or stop doing something
executive order
an order that comes from the U.S. President or a government agency and must be obeyed like a law
home rule
self-government by citizens at the local level
how a bill becomes a law
the process of how a proposed law ("bill") moves through Congress and the president in order to become a law
judgment
a formal decision given by a court
judicial review
the power of the U.S. courts to examine the laws or actions of the legislative and executive branches of the government and to determine whether such actions are consistent with the U.S. Constitution
jurisdiction
the right and power for courts to interpret and apply the law
law
a rule established by government or other source of authority to regulate people's conduct or activities
majority leader
a position where a Member of Congress is elected by the majority party to serve as the chief spokesperson for that party and to manage and schedule the business of either house
majority party
the political party with the most elected members
majority vote
the Senate may agree to any question by a majority of senators voting, if a quorum is present.
mayor
the head of government for a city, town or other municipality
minority leader
a position where a member of Congress is elected by the minority party to serve as the chief spokesperson for the party and to support the majority party in managing and scheduling the business of either house
minority party
the political party second in number of elected members to the majority party
nominate
to suggest a person for a position or office
ordinance
a law enacted by a city or county affecting local affairs such as traffic, noise, and animal control
pardon
the formal act of forgiving someone or excusing a mistake
President pro tempore of the Senate
the person who presides over the Senate when the Vice President is not present
presidential appointment
the power of the president to nominate persons to fill positions in the federal government
school board
the group of persons elected to manage local public schools
Speaker of the House
an office identified in Article I, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution; the leader of the U.S. House of Representatives, usually the highest ranking member of the majority party
special committee
a permanent committee established under the standing rules of both houses of Congress that focuses specific subject areas (e.g. Special Committee on Aging)
special interest groups
people who are concerned with some particular issue or part of the government and who try to influence legislators to act in their favor
standing committee
permanent committee that focuses on specific subject areas (e.g. Education and the Workforce Committee)
state legislator
a member of the Florida House of Representatives (state representative) or Florida Senate (state senator)
state representative
a member of a state legislature (i.e. the Florida House of Representatives)
state senator
a member of a state legislature (i.e. the Florida Senate)
statute
a law enacted at the state level
summary judgment
a judgment decided by a trial court without that case going to trial; a summary judgment is an attempt to stop a case from going to trial
United States representative
a member of the U.S House of Representatives; representatives are elected in districts throughout each state
United States senator
a member of the U.S. Senate elected to represent an entire state, there are two senators per state
veto
a decision by an executive authority such as a president or governor to reject a proposed law or statue
writ of certiorari
the procedure to see if the U.S. Supreme Court will hear a case; a writ of certiorari is issues when a higher level court agrees to hear an appeal of an inferior court's decision
committee
a group of House or Senate members gathered for a specific purpose, typically to discuss proposed legislation on specific topics
Congressman/woman
a member of the U.S. Congress, typically used to address members of the U.S. House of Representatives
federal courts
courts that decide arguments over how to interpret the Constitution, all laws passed by Congress, arguments involving states, and in agreements with other nations., the U.S. Supreme Court is the highest court in the land and is at the top of the federal courts
state house of representatives
the lower house of a state legislature (i.e., Florida House of Representatives)
state senate
the upper house of a state legislature (i.e., Florida Senate)
state courts
courts that deal with issues of law relating to those matters that the U.S. Constitution did not give to the federal government and are outlined in a state's constitution
appeal
a request, made after a trial, asking a higher court to decide whether that trial was conducted properly
bailiff
court official who keeps order in the court, calls witnesses, is in charge of and makes sure no one tries to influence the jury
case
a matter that goes before a judge or court of law
circuit courts
a court for a defined region of a state (usually including several counties) that has specific divisions and hears cases within those divisions (e.g., family court, criminal court)
civil case
a case involving the rights of citizens
county courts
a court that hears both civil and criminal cases in one specific county
court
a place where justice is administered
court clerk
court officer responsible for giving the oath to jurors and witnesses, is also responsible for court paperwork and physical evidence
court reporter
court officer who records, word for word, everything that is said as part of the trial
criminal case
a case involving someone who is accused of committing an illegal activity
cross-examination
the follow-up questioning of a witness by the side that did not call the witness to the stand
defendant
the person who answers the legal action of a plaintiff/prosecutor
direct examination
the first questioning of a witness by the side that called the witness to the stand
District Court of Appeals
an appellate court in the federal system
Florida Circuit Courts
the courts that have general jurisdiction over matters not covered by the county courts
Florida County Courts
the courts where most non-jury trials occur; they are referred to as "the people's courts" because they handle minor disagreements between citizens and minor criminal offenses
Florida Supreme Court
the highest court in Florida
judge
a public official authorized to decide questions brought before a court
juror
a member of a jury
jury
a group of citizens sworn to give a true verdict according to the evidence presented in a court of law
justice
the title given to judges of the U.S. Supreme Court and Florida Supreme Court
plaintiff/prosecutor
the person who brings legal action against another person
U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals
the courts where parties who are dissatisfied with the judgment of a U.S. District court may take their case
U.S. District Courts
the courts where most federal cases begin, the U.S. District Courts are courts of original jurisdiction and hear civil and criminal cases
trial court
the local, state, or federal court that is the first to hear a civil or criminal case; involves a hearing and decision with a single judge, with or without a jury
verdict
a judgment
voir dire
the process of questioning potential member of a jury for a trial
authority
the power to direct the actions of people or to make decisions
constitution
the basic principles and laws of a nation or state that determine the powers and duties of the government and guarantee certain rights to the people in it; usually a written document
Florida Declaration of Rights
the part of the Florida Constitution that lists the basic rights guaranteed to all citizens who live in the state
preamble
the introduction to a constitution; it states that the people establish the government, and it lists the purposes of the government
expressed or enumerated powers
the powers specifically named and assigned to the federal government or prohibited to be exercised by the states under the U.S. Constitution, also known as delegated powers
inherent powers
powers not listed in the U.S. Constitution but are necessary for the federal government to function
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